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Chapter 81 : Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens

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Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Allergic reactions and allergic diseases are the most common human disorders of immune regulation. Diseases may include localized responses in the skin and various portions of the airway, or systemic responses characterized by extensive skin involvement, severe airway compromise, or cardiovascular collapse. Mechanisms include mast cell or basophil activation by the cross-linking of allergen-specific homocytotropic IgE, cellular infiltration following mast cell or basophil mediator release, complement activation, the deposition of immune complexes in susceptible tissues, or the infiltration of activated T-lymphocytes. The degree of impairment from allergic disease varies widely, with most reactions posing minor inconvenience, but with rare episodes requiring intensive—and sometimes unsuccessful—interventions to prevent death.

Citation: Rabin R, Renn L, Slater J. 2016. Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, p 784-794. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch81
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Sample calculation of D. Serial 3-fold dilutions of test material—in this example, histamine base—were injected and the ΣE responses were plotted against the negative log dilutions. The D is determined from the best-fit line using the formula: D = (50 - Intercept)/slope. The calculated D of 5.56 corresponds to a value of −3 * 100,000 BAU/ml = 9.4 BAU/ml.

Citation: Rabin R, Renn L, Slater J. 2016. Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, p 784-794. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch81
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Hypothetical parallel line bioassay curves. In panel A, the bioassay curves are parallel, and the difference of log dilutions resulting in the same diameters is constant at all diameters. The log relative potency (log RP) of test sample B compared to reference A is represented by the difference. In panel B, the curves are not parallel, and the differences vary with the strength of the reaction. Thus, the log RP of B′ compared to A cannot be calculated.

Citation: Rabin R, Renn L, Slater J. 2016. Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, p 784-794. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch81
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Diameters are measured from the inner margins of the penned outline. Longest (A) plus midpoint orthogonal diameters (B) and summed (A + B).

Citation: Rabin R, Renn L, Slater J. 2016. Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, p 784-794. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch81
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Allergenic extracts currently standardized in the U.S.

Citation: Rabin R, Renn L, Slater J. 2016. Quantitation and Standardization of Allergens, p 784-794. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch81

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