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Chapter 5 : The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma

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The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter talks about the impact of blindness that results from two neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are entirely preventable with simple, safe, and effective preventive chemotherapy. Onchocerciasis is a parasitic helminth infection occurring in an estimated 20 to 30 million people, primarily in West and Central Africa. Onchocerciasis is also known as river blindness because the blackflies that transmit this filarial infection breed along fast-flowing streams. The infection is caused by , a filarial worm mostly migrate in the skin, where it causes intense itching and disfigurement. Onchocerciasis also produces a serious, debilitating, and stigmatizing skin disease (OSD). The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) has helped to facilitate the elimination of onchocerciasis in large regions of 11 West African countries. Trachoma is a bacterial infection occurring in approximately 20 million persons living in the developing regions of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, India, and Southeast Asia. The infection is spread from person to person on dirty hands and clothing, but it is also carried by flies, which can carry the bacteria from the eye discharges of one person to another. A breakthrough in the global control of trachoma was the discovery that a single dose of azithromycin was as effective as 4 to 6 weeks of topical tetracycline.

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5

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Infectious Diseases
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Immune Systems
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Wuchereria bancrofti
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Streptomyces avermitilis
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Lymphatic Filariasis
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Figures

Image of Figure 5.1
Figure 5.1

Map of southern Sudan showing the Mankien study site (from ).

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.2
Figure 5.2

Distribution of onchocerciasis showing current status of global control efforts. Red areas represent areas under ivermectin coverage; yellow areas represent areas requiring further surveillance information; green areas are those covered previously by the OCP in West Africa; pink areas indicate special intervention zones, i.e., previous OCP areas still receiving ivermectin and some vector control. (From .)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.3
Figure 5.3

Life cycle of O. volvulus. (From Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.4
Figure 5.4

A bronze study of a blind man led by a young boy (R. T. Wallen). Reproductions of this statue are located at the World Bank and at the WHO. Photo by Julie Ost.

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.5
Figure 5.5

Distribution of trachoma, worldwide, 2010. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_trachoma_2010.png [© 2011 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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Image of Figure 5.6
Figure 5.6

Trachoma patient—a fifth-grade student—in Silti Zone, Ethiopia. (Photo by Beth D. Weinstein [© International Trachoma Initiative].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Blinding Neglected Tropical Diseases: Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) and Trachoma, p 77-96. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch5
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