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Chapter 6 : The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy

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The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Mycobacteria are slim bacteria with unusual growth requirements and unique structural and biochemical properties that place them in their own category of microorganisms. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium , is the best-known mycobacterial infection of humans. Buruli ulcer and leprosy are two highly disfiguring and stigmatizing neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that occur almost exclusively among the impoverished living in developing countries. Buruli ulcer is a highly disfiguring skin infection caused by . Buruli typically strikes school-age children and manifests as a large ulcer usually appearing on the limbs. The ulcer of Buruli disease has a number of catastrophic consequences for the patient, including a profound socioeconomic impact and the widespread belief that witchcraft and curses play an important role in transmitting the disease. The most effective treatment of large ulcers requires access not only to antibiotics but also to different surgical modalities, including skin grafting. Leprosy (also known as Hansen’s disease) is caused by . Leprosy proceeds along either one of two clinical courses. The majority of patients develop the so-called tuberculoid form. Such patients have the ability to mount strong immunological responses against and, as a result, develop only localized disease. Far more severe is the lepromatous form of leprosy. These patients experience widely disseminated disease in the skin and nerves and even the eyes, nose, mouth, and bones. The most widely used multidrug therapy (MDT) drug regimen calls for dapsone to be administered together with the antibacterial drugs rifampin and clofazimine.

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Buruli Ulcer
0.8993913
Skin Infections
0.75240135
Infectious Diseases
0.6781023
Immune Systems
0.60643727
Chromosomal DNA
0.5214286
0.8993913
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Figures

Image of Figure 6.1
Figure 6.1

Distribution of Buruli ulcer, worldwide, 2010. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_buruli_ulcer_2010.png [© 2011 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.2
Figure 6.2

Case of Buruli ulcer from Benin, West Africa. (Image from Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.3
Figure 6.3

National Hansen's Disease Center, Carville, LA. (Image from Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.4
Figure 6.4

Bronze statue of Father Damien at the U.S. Capitol. (See www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/national-statuary-hall-collection/father-damien.)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.5
Figure 6.5

Leprosy prevalence rates; data reported to the WHO as of the beginning of January 2011. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Leprosy_PR_2010.png [© 2011 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.6
Figure 6.6

Drawing of under the microscope and following staining. (From Rinaldi, 2005.)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Mycobacterial Infections: Buruli Ulcer and Leprosy, p 97-114. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch6
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References

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