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Chapter 7 : The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases

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The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The kinetoplastid infections are transmitted by insect vectors, and the three major kinetoplastid infections of humans, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, kill approximately 70,000 people annually, making them among the most lethal neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, is caused by two different species of trypanosomes. is the cause in West Africa, while occurs in East Africa. It results from the bite of tsetses of the genus . Control of West African HAT relies largely on case detection and treatment as well as vector control, while fighting East African HAT relies on control in animal reservoirs and vector control. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by , which has the ability to invade host cells and replicate as amastigotes. The infection is transmitted by kissing bugs, primarily of the genus . Control of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone has been highly effective through indoor spraying that targets the vector, . Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of a sandfly. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring, pizza-like lesion, which often self-heals but can leave a scar. The scar is often deeply stigmatizing for women in developing countries. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, produces a febrile wasting syndrome with signs and symptoms that resemble leukemia. Drugs containing antimony are still widely used for the treatment of CL and VL, but are toxic and difficult to administer.

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Human African Trypanosomiasis
0.6898138
Infectious Diseases
0.63813686
Infectious Pathogens
0.6355944
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
0.51704544
Parasitic Diseases
0.5139377
0.6898138
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Figures

Image of Figure 7.1
Figure 7.1

Distribution of Gambian HAT (), worldwide, 2010. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_trypanosomiasis_gam biense_2010.png [© 2011 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.2
Figure 7.2

Distribution of Rhodesian HAT (), worldwide, 2010. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_trypanosomiasis_rhod esiense_2010.png [© 2011 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.3
Figure 7.3

Photomicrograph of stained trypanosomes in the bloodstream. (Image from Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.4
Figure 7.4

Life cycle of human trypanosomes and HAT. (From Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.5
Figure 7.5

Reproduction of J. E. Dutton’s original watercolor drawing of from the blood of an infected patient. (Image from the archives of the University of Liverpool, courtesy of David H. Molyneux.)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.6
Figure 7.6

Distribution of cases of infection, based on official estimates and status of vector transmission, worldwide, 2006–2009. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_chagas_2009.png [© 2010 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.7
Figure 7.7

Triatomine bug, . (Courtesy of Erwin Huebner, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.8
Figure 7.8

Life cycle of and Chagas disease. (From Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.9
Figure 7.9

Distribution of CL, worldwide, 2009. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_leishmaniasis_cutaneous_2009.png [© 2010 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.10
Figure 7.10

Distribution of VL, worldwide, 2009. (See http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary/Files/Maps/Global_leishmaniasis_visceral_2009.png [© 2010 WHO].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.11
Figure 7.11

Life cycle of human leishmaniasis infection. (From Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Image of Figure 7.12
Figure 7.12

The “pizza-like” lesion of CL. (Image from Public Health Image Library, CDC [http://phil.cdc.gov].)

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 7.1

The major species of HAT and animal trypanosomiasis

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7
Generic image for table
Table 7.2

Simplified summary of the human leishmaniases

Based on information from .

Citation: Hotez P. 2013. The Kinetoplastid Infections: Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness), Chagas Disease, and the Leishmaniases, p 115-148. In Forgotten People Forgotten Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818753.ch7

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