Chapter 10.1 : Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818814/9781555818814_Chap10.1-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818814/9781555818814_Chap10.1-2.gif


Virology laboratories may use any of multiple methodologies for the analysis of specimens, including virus culture, antigen detection methods, nucleic acid detection and characterization assays, cytopathology and histopathology, and serologic methods, to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of viral infections. The method of choice is influenced by several variables, including the nature of the suspected virus, the availability of test reagents and equipment, the level of knowledge and training of personnel, and the intended purpose of the assay. The latter may include detecting active or latent infection, providing prognostic indicators of disease progression or severity, or monitoring response to therapy. No single test method will satisfy all needs; therefore, laboratory scientists must carefully assess multiple factors in determining appropriate test menus for their facilities. These will include aspects such as the patient population and the medical services being provided by the facility, as well as the personnel, equipment, available funding, and other resources of the laboratory. Furthermore, a thorough knowledge of the regulations, requirements, and expectations regarding validation and verification of new assays and test systems and the quality assurance procedures for their maintenance and the general operation of the facility is essential. Additionally, an understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral infections is needed for the appropriate utility of assays and the interpretation of results.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10.1.1-10.1.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.1
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Hierholzer JC. 1992. Adenoviruses in the immunocompromised host. Clin Microbiol Rev 5:262274.
2. Kahn JS. 2006. The widening scope of coronaviruses. Curr Opin Pediatr 18:4247.
3. Fouchier RA, Hartwig NG, Bestebroer TM, Niemeyer B, de Jong JC, Simon JH, Osterhaus AD. 2004. A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:62126216.
4. van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, Vermeulen-Oost W, Berkhout RJ, Wolthers KC, Wertheim-van Dillen PM, Kaandorp J, Spaargaren J, Berkhout B. 2004. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med 10:368371.
5. Woo PCY, Lau SKP, C-M Chu, K-H Chan, H-W Tsoi, Huang Y, Wong BH, Poon RW, Cai JJ, Luk WK, Poon LL, Wong SS, Guan Y, Peiris JS, Yuen KY. 2005. Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J Virol 79:884895.
6. Gralinski LE, Baric RS. 2015. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections. J Pathol 235:185195.
7. Dalakas MC, Sever JL, Madden DL, Papadopoulos NM, Shekarchi IC, Albrecht P, Krezlewicz A. 1984. Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies. Rev Infect Dis 6: S562S567.
8. Jubelt B, Agre JC. 2000. Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome. JAMA 284:412414.
9. Loens K, Goossens H, de Laat C, Foolen H, Oudshoorn P, Pattyn S, Sillekens P, Ieven M. 2006. Detection of rhinoviruses by tissue culture and two independent amplification techniques, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification and reverse transcription-PCR, in children with acute respiratory infections during a winter season. J Clin Microbiol 44:166171.
10. Lamson D, Renwick N, Kapoor V, Liu Z, Palacios G, Ju J, Dean A, St. George K, Briese T, Lipkin WI. 2006. MassTag polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New York State during 2004–2005. J Infect Dis 194:13981402.
11. Hussaini SH, Skidmore SJ, Richardson P, Sherratt LM, Cooper BT, O’Grady JG. 1997. Severe hepatitis E infection during pregnancy. J Viral Hepat 4:5154.
12. Wang L, Zhuang H. 2004. Hepatitis E: an overview and recent advances in vaccine research. World J Gastroenterol 10:21572162.
13. Ishiguro N, Yamada S, Takahashi T, Takahashi Y, Okuno T, Yamanishi K. 1990. Meningo-encephalitis associated with HHV-6 related exanthem subitum. Acta Pediatr Scand 79:987989.
14. McCullers JA, Lakeman FD, Whitley RJ. 1995. Human herpesvirus 6 is associated with focal encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis 21:571576.
15. Cone RW, Huang ML, Corey L, Zeh J, Ashley R, Bowden R. 1999. Human herpesvirus 6 infections after marrow transplantation: clinical and virologic manifestations. J Infect Dis 179:311318.
16. Secchiero P, Carrigan DR, Asano Y, Benedetti L, Crowley RW, Komaroff AL, Gallo RC, Lusso P. 1995. Detection of HHV-6 in plasma of children with primary infection and immunosuppressed patients by polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 171:273280.
17. Singh N, Carrigan R, Gayowsky T, Marino IR. 1997. Human herpesvirus-6 infection in liver transplant recipients: documentation of pathogenicity. Transplantation 64:674678.
18. Harma M, Hockerstedt K, Lyytikainen O, Lautenschlager I. 2006. HHV-6 and HHV-7 antigenemia related to CMV infection after liver transplantation. J Med Virol 78:800805.
19. Pellet PE, Ablashi DV, Ambros PF, Agut H, Caserta MT, Descamps V, Flamand L, Gautheret-Dejean A, Hall CB, Kamble RT, Kuehl U, Lassner D, Lautenschlager I, Loomis KS, Luppi M, Lusso P, Medveczky PG, Montoya JG, Mon Y, Ogata M, Pritchett JC, Rogez S, Seto E, Waard KN, Yoshikawa T, Razonable RR. 2012. Chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6: questions and answers. Rev Med Virol 22:144155.
20. Yamanishi K, Okuno T, Shiraki K, Takahashi M, Kondo T, Asano Y, Kurata T. 1988. Identification of human herpesvirus-6 as a causal agent for exanthem subitum. Lancet i:10651067.
21. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, Lee F, Culpepper J, Knowles DM, Moore PS. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Science 266:18651869.
22. Huang YQ, Li JJ, Kaplan MH, Poiesz B, Katabira E, Zhang WC, Feiner D, Friedman-Kien AE. 1995. Human herpesvirus-like nucleic acid in various forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 345:759761.
23. Schalling M, Ekman M, Kaaya EE, Linde A, Biberfeld P. 1995. A role for a new herpes virus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Nat Med 1:707708.
24. Soulier J, Grollet L, Oksenhendler E, Cacoub P, Cazals-Hatem D, Babinet P, d’Agay MF, Clauvel JP, Raphael M, Degos L, Sigaux F. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman’s disease. Blood 86:12761280.
25. Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM. 1995. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N Engl J Med 332:11861191.
26. Moore KAII, Mehta V. 2015. The growing epidemic of HPV-oropharyngeal carcinoma: a clinical review for primary care providers. J Am Board Fam Med 28:498503.
27. Koutsky LA, Galloway DA, Holmes KK. 1988. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. Epidemiol Rev 10:122163.
28. Dunne EF, Park IU. 2013. HPV and HPV-associated diseases. Infect Dis Clin North Am 27:765778.
29. Hamelin ME, Boivin G. 2005. Human metapneumovirus: a ubiquitous and long-standing respiratory pathogen. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24: S203S207.
30. van den Hoogen BG, de Jong JC, Groen J, Kuiken T, de Groot R, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD. 2001. A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med 7:719724.
31. Falsey AR, Walsh EE. 2000. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:371384.
32. Allander T, Tammi MT, Eriksson M, Bjerkner A, Tiveljung-Lindell A, Andersson B. 2005. Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:1289112896.
33. Calisher CH. 1994. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada. Clin Microbiol Rev 7:89116.
34. Wasay M, Khatri IA, Abd-Allah F. 2015. Arbovirus infections of the nervous system: current trends and future threats. Neurology 84:421423.
35. Barton LL. 1996. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: a neglected central nervous system pathogen. Clin Infect Dis 22:197. doi: 10.1093/clinids/22.1.197
36. Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Lancet 347:739741.
37. CDC. 1998. Fatal Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection following a mucocutaneous exposure and interim recommendations for worker protection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:10731076, 1083.
38. CDC. 1987. B virus infection in humans—Pensacola, Florida. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 36:289290, 295296.
39. Wang L, Harcourt BH, Yu M, Tamin A, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, Eaton BT. 2001. Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3:279287.
40. CDC. 2009. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
41. Hsiung GD, Fong CKY, Landry ML. 1994. Hsiung’s Diagnostic Virology, 4th ed. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
42. Knipe DM Howley PM (ed). 2013. Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
43. Specter S, Hodinka RL, Wiedbrauk DL, Young SA. 2009. Clinical Virology Manual, 4th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
44. Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Warnock DW (eds). 2011. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.


Generic image for table
Table 10.1–1

Clinical manifestations of human viral infections

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10.1.1-10.1.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.1
Generic image for table
Table 10.1–2

Zoonotic viruses associated with human infection

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections: Introduction, p 10.1.1-10.1.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error