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Chapter 10.4 : Specimen Collection and Processing

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Specimen Collection and Processing, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

In addition to laboratory processes directly associated with performing viral culture, optimal utility of the method requires careful attention to the selection, collection, transport, and assessment of specimens. The laboratory must provide written guidelines to collection sites (clinics, physician’s offices, emergency rooms, etc.) detailing which viruses can be cultured by the laboratory and instructions for submitting specimens. Guidelines should include laboratory hours of operation and contact person(s); instructions for specimen collection, labeling, storage, and transport; source and storage conditions for transport media and containers; patient information required for appropriate testing; estimated turnaround time; reporting procedures and values; and testing limitations. This procedure is revised from the same procedure in the previous edition of this text ( ).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.4–1
Figure 10.4–1

Summary of collection, transport, and evaluation of specimens for viral culture. NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Image of Figure 10.4–2
Figure 10.4–2

Preparation of fluid specimens. Soln, solution; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; TA, tracheal aspirate; BAL, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Image of Figure 10.4–3
Figure 10.4–3

Preparation of swabs, scrapings and vesicle aspirates collected in VTM.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Image of Figure 10.4–4
Figure 10.4–4

Preparation of tissue samples.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Image of Figure 10.4–5
Figure 10.4–5

Preparation of stool samples. tsp, teaspoons.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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Image of Figure 10.4–6
Figure 10.4–6

Preparation of leukocytes from anticoagulated blood by the ammonium chloride method.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4
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References

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1. Clarke L. 2010. Specimen collection and processing. In Garcia LS (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Walsh P, Overmyer CL, Pham K, Michaelson S, Gofman L, DeSalvia L, Tran T, Gonzalez D, Pusavat J, Feola M, Iacono KT, Mordechai E, Adelson ME. 2008. Comparison of respiratory virus detection rates for infants and toddlers by use of flocked swabs, saline aspirates, and saline aspirates mixed in universal transport medium for room temperature storage and shipping. J Clin Microbiol 46:23742376.
3. Hernes SS, Quarsten H, Hagen E, Lyngroth AL, Pripp AH, Bjorvatn B, Bakke PS. 2011. Swabbing for respiratory viral infections in older patients: a comparison of rayon and nylon flocked swabs. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30: 159165.
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8. Clarke LM, Daidone BJ, Inghida R, Kirwin M, Sierra MF. 1992. Differential recovery of cytomegalovirus from cellular and supernatant components of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. J Clin Pathol 97:313317.
9. Eggleton P, Gargan R, Fisher D. 1989. Rapid method for the isolation of neutrophils in high yield without the use of dextran or density gradient polymers. J Immunol Methods 121:105113.
10. English D, Anderson BR. 1974. Single-step separation of red blood cells, granulocytes and mononuclear leukocytes on discontinuous density gradients of Ficoll-Hypaque. J Immunol Methods 5:249259.
11. Ferrante A, Thong YH. 1980. Optimal conditions for simultaneous purification of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes from human peripheral blood by the Hypaque-Ficoll method. J Immunol Methods 36:109117.
12. Howell CL, Miller MJ, Martin WJ. 1979. Comparison of rates of virus isolation from leukocyte populations separated from blood by conventional and Ficoll-Paque/Macrodex methods. J Clin Microbiol 10:533537.
13. Lipson SM, Falk LH, Lee SH. 1996. Effect of leukocyte concentration and inoculum volume on the laboratory identification of cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood by the centrifugation culture-antigen detection methodology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 120: 5356.
14. Howell CL, Miller MJ, Bruckner DA. 1986. Elimination of toxicity and enhanced cytomegalovirus detection in cell cultures inoculated with semen from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 24:657660.

Tables

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Table 10.4–1

Specimen collection for viral culture

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Specimen Collection and Processing, p 10.4.1-10.4.11. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.4

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