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Chapter 10.7 : Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples

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Abstract:

The direct detection of viruses and in specimens can be performed with a variety of methods, including rapid antigen detection assays and immunofluorescence methods ( Table 10.7–1 ), as well as electron microscopy, cytopathology, and histopathology. Numerous molecular assays have also been developed and many are commercially available for diagnostic purposes; these are extensively described in other sections of this book. Rapid antigen detection methods for viral diagnostics are almost universally performed with commercially available kits in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions, most commonly for influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rotavirus. This procedure therefore focuses on IF methods with brief sections on electron microscopy and cytohistopathology, and is revised from the previously published edition ( ).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
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Figures

Image of Figure 10.7–1
Figure 10.7–1

Preparation of aspirates and fluids for IF.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7–2
Figure 10.7–2

Preparation of swabs, scrapings, and impression smears for IF.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7–3
Figure 10.7–3

Leukocyte preparation with several cells showing intense CMV pp65 staining and a few cells (arrows) showing weak speckled nuclear staining (×400). Provided by Light Diagnostics.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
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Image of Figure 10.7–4
Figure 10.7–4

(A) Kidney tubule with characteristic “owl eye” inclusion of CMV (arrow). Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (B) Giemsa stain of conjunctival cells showing cytoplasmic inclusion (arrow) of Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (C) Cytologic examination (Tzanck smear) of scrapings from the base of an ulcerative HSV lesion showing multinucleated giant cells. Courtesy of W. L. Drew. (D) Large eosinophilic inclusions fill the cytoplasms of several infected basal cells (molluscum bodies). Courtesy of W. L. Drew.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
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References

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Tables

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Table 10.7–1

Direct antigen detection for viral and chlamydial infections

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
Generic image for table
Table 10.7–2

Troubleshooting IF problems

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7
Generic image for table
Table 10.7–3

Inclusion morphology

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Direct Detection of Viruses and in Clinical Samples, p 10.7.1-10.7.10. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch10.7

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