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Chapter 11.2 : Serologic Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections

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Citation: Leber A. 2016. Serologic Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections, p 11.2.1.1-11.2.2.3. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch11.2
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References

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1. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M. 2005. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis 5:685694.
2. Tandon R, Sharma M, Chandrashekhar Y, Kotb M, Yacoub MH, Narula J. 2013. Revisiting the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and carditis. Nat Rev Cardiol 10:171177.
3. Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Batsford S. 2007. Pathogenesis of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis a century after Clemens von Pirquet. Kidney Int 71:10941104.
4. Facklam R, Beall B, Efstratiou A, Fischetti V, Johnson D, Kaplan E, Kriz P, Lovgren M, Martin D, Schwartz B, Totolian A, Bessen D, Hollingshead S, Rubin F, Scott J, Tyrrell G. 1999. emm typing and validation of provisional M types for group A streptococci. Emerg Infect Dis 5:247253.
5. Wannamaker LW. 1973. The chain that links the heart to the throat. Circulation 48:918.
6. Parks T, Smeesters PR, Steer AC. 2012. Streptococcal skin infection and rheumatic heart disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis 25:145153.
7. McDonald M, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR. 2004. Acute rheumatic fever: a chink in the chain that links the heart to the throat? Lancet Infect Dis 4:240245.
8. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, Gerber MA, Kaplan EL, Lee G, Martin JM, Van Beneden C. 2012. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 55:12791282.
9. Wannamaker LW, Ayoub EM. 1960. Antibody titers in acute rheumatic fever. Circulation 21:598614.
10. Shet A, Kaplan EL. 2002. Clinical use and interpretation of group A streptococcal antibody tests: a practical approach for the pediatrician or primary care physician. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:420426.
11. Todd EW. 1938. The differentiation of two distinct serological varieties of streptolysin, streptolysin O and streptolysin S. J Pathol Bacteriol 48:423445.
12. Johnson DR, Kurlan R, Leckman J, Kaplan EL. 2010. The human immune response to streptococcal extracellular antigens: clinical, diagnostic, and potential pathogenetic implications. Clin Infect Dis 50:481490.
13. Kaplan EL, Ferrieri P, Wannamaker LW. 1974. Comparison of the antibody response to streptococcal cellular and extracellular antigens in acute pharyngitis. J Pediatr 84:2128.
14. Kaplan EL, Anthony BF, Chapman SS, Ayoub EM, Wannamaker LW. 1970. The influence of the site of infection on the immune response to group A streptococci. J Clin Invest 49:14051414.
15. Ayoub EM, Wannamaker LW. 1962. Evaluation of the streptococcal deoxyribonuclease B and diphosphopyridine nucleotide antibody tests in acute rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis. Pediatrics 29:527538.
16. Klein GC, Baker CN, Jones WL. 1971. “Upper limits of normal” antistreptolysin O and antideoxyribonuclease B titers. Appl Microbiol 21:9991001.
17. RHD Australia (ARF/RHD Writing Group), National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. 2012. Australian Guideline for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, 2nd ed. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, Casuarina, Darwin, Australia.
18. Kaplan EL, Rothermel CD, Johnson DR. 1998. Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States. Pediatrics 101:8688.
19. Steer AC, Vidmar S, Ritika R, Kado J, Batzloff M, Jenney AW, Carlin JB, Carapetis JR. 2009. Normal ranges of streptococcal antibody titers are similar whether streptococci are endemic to the setting or not. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:172175.
20. Johnson DR, Kaplan EL, Sramek J, Bicova R, Havlicek J, Havlickova H. 1996. Laboratory Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
21. Spaun J, Bentzon MW, Larsen SO, Hewitt LF. 1961. International standard for antistreptolysin-O. Bull World Health Organ 24:271279.
1. Shet A, Kaplan EL. 2002. Clinical use and interpretation of group A streptococcal antibody tests: a practical approach for the pediatrician or primary care physician. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:420426.
2. Johnson DR, Kurlan R, Leckman J, Kaplan EL. 2010. The human immune response to streptococcal extracellular antigens: clinical, diagnostic, and potential pathogenetic implications. Clin Infect Dis 50:481490.
3. Kaplan EL, Rothermel CD, Johnson DR. 1998. Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States. Pediatrics 101:8688.
4. Steer AC, Vidmar S, Ritika R, Kado J, Batzloff M, Jenney AW, Carlin JB, Carapetis JR. 2009. Normal ranges of streptococcal antibody titers are similar whether streptococci are endemic to the setting or not. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:172175.
5. Hill HR. 2010. Group A streptococcal carrier versus acute infection: the continuing dilemma. Clin Infect Dis 50:491492.
6. Johnson DR, Kaplan EL, Sramek J, Bicova R, Havlicek J, Havlickova H. 1996. Laboratory Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
7. RHD Australia (ARF/RHD Writing Group), National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. 2012. Australian Guideline for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease, 2nd ed. National Heart Foundation of Australia, Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand, Casuarina, Perth, Australia.
8. Danchin MH, Carlin JB, Devenish W, Nolan TM, Carapetis JR. 2005. New normal ranges of antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titres for Australian children. J Paediatr Child Health 41:583586.
9. Karmarkar MG, Venugopal V, Joshi L, Kamboj R. 2004. Evaluation & revaluation of upper limits of normal values of anti-streptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B in Mumbai. Indian J Med Res 119(Suppl):2628.
10. Dajani AS, Ayoub E, Bierman FZ, Bisno AL, Denny FWMD; Durack DT, Ferrieri P, Freed M, Gerber M, Kaplan EL, Karchmer AW, Markowitz M, Rahimtoola SH, Shulman ST, Stollerman G, Takahashi M, Taranta A, Taubert KA, Wilson W. 1992. Guidelines for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever: Jones criteria, 1992 update. JAMA 268:20692073.
11. Kurlan R, Johnson D, Kaplan EL. 2008. Streptococcal infection and exacerbations of childhood tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a prospective blinded cohort study. Pediatrics 121:11881197.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 11.2.1–1

Extracellular products used in streptococcal serology assays

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Serologic Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections, p 11.2.1.1-11.2.2.3. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch11.2
Generic image for table
Table 11.2.1–2

Upper limit of normal (80th percentile) values for serum streptococcal antibody titers in children in the United States

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Serologic Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections, p 11.2.1.1-11.2.2.3. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch11.2
Generic image for table
Table 11.2.1–3

Upper limit of normal (80th percentile) for serum streptococcal antibody titers in children and adults in tropical settings where group A streptococcus disease is endemic

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Serologic Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Infections, p 11.2.1.1-11.2.2.3. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch11.2

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