Chapter 15.8 : Management of Infectious Waste

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For effective and efficient management of infectious wastes, a comprehensive waste management plan is essential in order to ensure the safety of the employees handling the waste, compliance with the various regulatory requirements ( ), meeting the standards of the JCAHO ( ) and the guidelines of other professional groups such as the NCCLS (now CLSI) ( ), and implementation of cost-effective strategies for waste disposal. In developing a comprehensive plan for infectious-waste management, consider the following factors because of the constraints that they impose.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Management of Infectious Waste, p 15.8.1-15.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch15.8
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1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1991. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens:—final rule. Fed Regist 56:6400464182. (Also CFR Title 29, Part 1910.1030: Bloodborne pathogens.)
2. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1991. Performance-oriented packaging standards: revisions and response to petitions for reconsideration. Fed Regist 56:6612466287. (Also CFR Title 49, Parts 171–180, specifically Section 173.197: Regulated medical waste; Part 178: Specifications for packaging; and Section 172.101: Hazardous materials table.)
3. U.S. Department of Transportation. 1996. CFR Title 49, Section 173.134(a)(4): Regulated medical waste.
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1997. CFR Title 40, Section 60.51c: Definitions, medical/infectious waste.
5. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 1998. Hospital Accreditation Standards: Standards, Intents. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health-care Organizations, Chicago, IL.
6. NCCLS. 2002. Clinical Laboratory Waste Management. Document GP5-A2, 2nd ed. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.
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9. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 38(Suppl 6):137.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1998. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47(RR-19):139.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health. February 2007, posting date. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/bmbl5toc.htm.
12. Gordon JG, Denys GA. 2001. Infectious wastes: efficient and effective management, p 11391157. In Block SS (ed), Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
13. Reinhardt PA, Gordon JG (ed). 1991. Infectious and Medical Waste Management. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.
14. Gordon JG, Denys GA. 1995. Minimization of waste generation in medical laboratories, p 163193. In Reinhardt PA, Leonard KL, Ashbrook PC (ed), Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization in Laboratories. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.
15. Garner JS. 1996. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 17:5480.
16. Denys GA. 2000. Infectious waste management, p 782796. In Lederberg J (ed), Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 2nd ed, vol 2. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1986. EPA Guide for Infectious Waste Management. Publication EPA/530-SW-86-014. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
18. Gordon JG, Reinhardt PA, Denys GA. 2004. Medical waste management, p 17731785. In Mayhall CG (ed), Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
19. Marsik FJ, Denys GA. 1995. Sterilization, decontamination, and disinfection procedures for the microbiology laboratory, p 8698. In Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 6th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
20. State and Territorial Association of Alternative Treatment Technologies. 1998. Technical Assistance Manual: State Regulatory Oversight of Medical Waste Treatment Technologies. Report from meeting held in New Orleans, LA, 15–16 February 1998. STAATTII.

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