1887

Chapter 3.12 : Urine Cultures

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Urine Cultures, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818814/9781555818814_Chap3.12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818814/9781555818814_Chap3.12-2.gif

Abstract:

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely common. They account for 8 million visits to physicians’ offices and over 100,000 hospital admissions per year ( ), with an estimated cost of $1.6 billion in the United States alone ( ).

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 3.12–1
Figure 3.12–1

(a) Method of streaking urine for colony count using a 1-μl loop; (b) method of streaking urine for colony count using either a 10- or 1-μl loop; (c) spreader method of streaking urine for colony count after inoculation with either a 10- or 1-μl volume; (d) method of streaking 10 μl of urine using drip method for count and quadrant streaking for isolation; (e) MAC-CNA biplate with 10 μl of urine streaked in quadrants (EMB and PEA are other options).

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.12–A1
Figure 3.12–A1

Flowchart for forward pipetting (adapted from reference with permission).

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.12–A2
Figure 3.12–A2

Flowchart for reverse pipetting (adapted from reference with permission).

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Worksheet 1
Worksheet 1

Colorimetric Quantitative Loop Calibration

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Worksheet 2
Worksheet 2

Pipette Calibration—Gravimetric

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Worksheet 3
Worksheet 3

Pipette Calibration—Spectrophotometric

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818814.chap3.12
1. Dielubanza EJ, Schaeffer AJ. 2011. Urinary tract infections in women. Med Clin North Am 95:2741.
2. Foxman B, Barlow R, D’Arcy H, Gillespie B, Sobel JD. 2000. Urinary tract infection: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Ann Epidemiol 10:509515.
3. McCarter YS, Burd EM, Hall GS, Zervos M. 2009. Cumitech 2C: Laboratory Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Kass EH. 1956. Asymptomatic infections of the urinary tract. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 69:5664.
5. Kwon JH, Fausone MK, Du H, Robicsek A, Peterson LR. 2012. Impact of laboratory-reported urine culture colony counts on the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection for hospitalized patients. Am J Clin Pathol 137:778784.
6. Hooton TM, Stamm WE. 1997. Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 11:551581.
7. Johnson JR, Stamm WE. 1989. Urinary tract infections in women: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Intern Med 111:906917.
8. Stamm WE, Counts GW, Running KR, Fihn S, Turck M, Holmes KK. 1982. Diagnosis of coliform infection in acutely dysuric women. N Engl J Med 307:463468.
9. Heldrich FJ, Barone MA, Spiegler E. 2000. UTI: diagnosis and evaluation in symptomatic pediatric patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 39:461472.
10. Stark RP, Maki DG. 1984. Bacteriuria in the catheterized patient. What quantitative level of bacteriuria is relevant? N Engl J Med 311:560564.
11. Tambyah PA, Maki DG. 2000. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection is rarely symptomatic: a prospective study of 1,497 catheterized patients. Arch Intern Med 160:678682.
12. Nicolle LE, Bradley S, Colgan R, Rice JC, Schaeffer A, Hooton TM. 2005. Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. Clin Infect Dis 40:643654.
13. Hooton TM, Bradley SF, Cardenas DD, Colgan R, Geerlings SE, Rice JC, Saint S, Schaeffer AJ, Tambayh PA, Tenke P, Nicolle LE. 2010. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 50:625663.
14. Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. 2011. Urinary tract infection: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of the initial UTI in febrile infants and children 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics 128:595610.
15. Lifshitz E, Kramer L. 2000. Outpatient urine culture: does collection technique matter? Arch Intern Med 160:25372540.
16. Lipsky BA, Ireton RC, Fihn SD, Hackett R, Berger RE. 1987. Diagnosis of bacteriuria in men: specimen collection and culture interpretation. J Infect Dis 155:847854.
17. Gross PA, Harkauy LM, Barden GE, Kerstein M. 1974. The fallacy of cultures of the tips of Foley catheters. Surg Gynecol Obstet 139:597598.
18. Pezzlo MT, Amsterdam D, Anhalt JP, Lawrence T, Stratton NJ, Vetter EA, Peterson EM, de la Maza LM. 1992. Detection of bacteriuria and pyuria by URISCREEN a rapid enzymatic screening test. J Clin Microbiol 30:680684.
19. Aspevall O, Osterman B, Dittmer R, Stén L, Lindbäck E, Forsum U. 2002. Performance of four chromogenic urine culture media after one or two days of incubation compared with reference media. J Clin Microbiol 40:15001503.
20. Carricajo A, Boiste S, Thore J, Aubert G, Gille Y, Freydière AM. 1999. Comparative evaluation of five chromogenic media for detection, enumeration and identification of urinary tract pathogens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18:796803.
21. Chang J-C, Chien M-L, Chen H-M, Yan JJ, Wu J-J. 2008. Comparison of CPS ID 3 and CHROMagar Orientation chromogenic agars with standard biplate technique for culture of clinical urine samples. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 41:422427.
22. Perry JD, Butterworth LA, Nicholson A, Appleby MR, Orr KE. 2003. Evaluation of a new chromogenic medium, Uriselect 4, for the isolation and identification of urinary tract pathogens. J Clin Pathol 56:528531.
23. Manickam K, Karlowsky JA, Adam H, Lagacé-Wiens PRS, Rendina A, Pang P, Murray B-L, Alfa MJ. 2013. CHROMagar Orientation medium reduces urine culture workload. J Clin Microbiol 51:11791183.
24. Albers AC, Fletcher RD. 1983. Accuracy of calibrated-loop transfer. J Clin Microbiol 18:4042.
25. CLSI. 2004. Quality Assurance for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media, 3rd ed. Approved standard M22-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
26. Shaw KN, McGowan KL, Gorelick MH, Schwartz JS. 1998. Screening for urinary tract infection in infants in the emergency department: which test is best? Pediatrics 101:E1.
27. Washington JAI, White CM, Laganiere M, Smith LH. 1981. Detection of significant bacteriuria by microscopic examination of urine. Lab Med 12:294296.
28. Tambyah PA, Maki DG. 2000. The relationship between pyuria and infection in patients with indwelling urinary catheters: a prospective study of 761 patients. Arch Intern Med 160:673677.
29. Hoberman A, Wald ER, Penchansky L, Reynolds EA, Young S. 1993. Enhanced urinalysis as a screening test for urinary tract infection. Pediatrics 91:11961199.
30. Pfaller M, Ringenberg B, Rames L, Hegeman J, Koontz F. 1987. The usefulness of screening tests for pyuria in combination with culture in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 6:207215.
31. Lin DS, Huang FY, Chiu NC, Koa HA, Hung HY, Hsu CH, Hsieh WS, Yang DI. 2000. Comparison of hemocytometer leukocyte counts and standard urinalyses for predicting urinary tract infections in febrile infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19:223227.
32. Emerson JF, Emerson SS. 2005. Evaluation of a standardized procedure for microscopic cell counts in body fluids. J Clin Lab Anal 19:267275.
33. Broeren MAC, Bahçeci S, Vader HL, Arents NLA. 2011. Screening for urinary tract infection with the Sysmex UF-1000i urine flow cytometer. J Clin Microbiol 49:10251029.
34. Giesen CD, Greeno AM, Thompson KA, Patel R, Jenkins SM, Lieske JC. 2013. Performance of flow cytometry to screen urine for bacteria and white blood cells prior to urine culture. Clin Biochem 46:810813.
35. Kadkhoda K, Manickam K, Degagne P, Sokolowski P, Pang P, Kontzie N, Alfa M. 2011. UF-1000i flow cytometry is an effective screening method for urine specimens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 69:130136.
36. Marschal M, Wienke M, Hoering S, Autenrieth IB, Frick J-S. 2012. Evaluation of 3 different rapid automated systems for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 72:125130.
37. Parta M, Hudson BY, Le TP, Ittmann M, Musher DM, Stager C. 2013. IRIS iQ200 workstation as a screen for performing urine culture. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 75:58.
38. Dimech W, Roney K. 2002. Evaluation of an automated urinalysis system for testing urine chemistry, microscopy and culture. Pathology (Phila) 34:170177.
39. Ilki A, Bekdemir P, Ulger N, Soyletir G. 2010. Rapid reporting of urine culture results: impact of the Uro-Quick screening system. New Microbiol 33:147153.
40. Verani JR, McGee L, Schrag SJ. 2010. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease - revised guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59:136.
41. Zhang Q, Kwoh C, Attorri S, Clarridge JE3rd. 2000. Aerococcus urinae in urinary tract infections. J Clin Microbiol 38:17031705.
1. Albers AC, Fletcher RD. 1983. Accuracy of calibrated-loop transfer. J Clin Microbiol 18:4042.
2. McCarter YS, Burd EM, Hall GS, Zervos M. 2009. Cumitech 2C: Laboratory Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
1. Bermes EW, Forman DT. 1976. Basic laboratory principles and procedures, p 615. In Teitz NW (ed), Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. The WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Bio-Rad Laboratories. 1983. Procedure for comparing precision of pipet tips. Clin Lab Prod 12:15.
3. Bray W. 1995. Software for the gravimetric calibration testing of pipets. Am Clin Lab 14:1415. (Available on the internet at http://www.labtronics.com/ptM_art.htm)
4. Connors M, Curtis R. 1999. Pipetting error: a real problem with a simple solution. Parts I and II. Am Lab Newsl 31:2022.
5. Curtis RH. 1994. Performance verification of manual action pipets. Part I. Am Clin Lab 12:89.
6. Curtis RH. 1994. Performance verification of manual action pipets. Part II. Am Clin Lab 12:1617.
7. Johnson B. 1999. Calibration to dye for: Artel’s new pipette calibration system. Scientist 13:14.
8. NCCLS. 1984. Determining Performance of Volumetric Equipment. Proposed guideline 18-P. NCCLS, Villanova, PA.
9. Skeen GA, Ashwood ER. 2000. Using spectrophotometry to evaluate volumetric devices. Lab Med 31:478479.
10. Steiner P. 1989. Basic laboratory principles and calculations, p 19. In Kaplan LA, Pesce AJ (ed), Clinical Chemistry, 2nd ed. The CV Mosby Co, St. Louis, MO.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 3.12–1

Urinary microbiota

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–2

Definitions

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–3

Summary of chromogenic agar and pigmentation of colonies

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–4

Summary of bacteriological culture systems

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–5

Protocol for workup of urine cultures

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–6

Reporting of isolates with minimal testing

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A1

Calibration methods for volume-dispensing instruments

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A2

Commercial pipettor calibration systems and related products

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A3

Suggested calibration schedule for microbiology laboratory pipettors

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A4

value for distilled water as a function of temperature and pressure

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A5

Theoretical absorbance values for test solutions

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12
Generic image for table
Table 3.12–A6

Suggested tolerance limits for microbiology pipettors

Citation: Chan W. 2016. Urine Cultures, p 3.12.1-3.12.33. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.12

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error