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Chapter 3.13 : Wound Cultures

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Wound Cultures, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

A wide variety of microorganisms that reside on the skin and mucous membranes of the body, as well as those found in the environment, can cause skin and soft tissue infections. These organisms enter the body through breaks in the skin or mucous membranes, through wounds made by trauma or bites (exogenous), or as a complication of surgery or foreign-body implants (endogenous), or they can be spread to the tissues through the vascular system (hematogenous).

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figures

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Figure 3.13.1–1

Illustration of sterile-scalpel method of homogenization of tissue.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figure 3.13.1–2

Illustration of mortar-and-pestle method of homogenization of tissue.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figure 3.13.1–3

Illustration of stomacher method of homogenization of tissue.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figure 3.13.1–4

Illustration of tissue-grinding kit method of homogenization of tissue.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figure 3.13.1–5

Initial evaluation of positive wound cultures for organisms growing aerobically. For lymph nodes, perform all work using a biological safety cabinet.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Figure 3.13.1–6

Algorithm to rapidly detect aerobic and facultatively aerobic microorganisms usually considered significant, even in low numbers or in mixed cultures. See procedures 3.18.1 and 3.18.2 for other tests needed to confirm suspected identifications.

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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References

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1. Bowler PG, Duerden BI, Armstrong DG. 2001. Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:244269.
2. Levine NS, Lindberg RB, Mason ADJr, Pruitt BAJr. 1976. The quantitative swab culture and smear: a quick, simple method for determining the number of viable aerobic bacteria on open wounds. J Trauma 16:8994.
3. York MK, Sharp SE, Bowler PG, Church DL. 2010. Procedure 3.13.1, wound/abscess and soft tissue culture. In Garcia LS (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington DC.
4. Roelofsen E, van Leeuwen M, Meijer-Severs GJ, Wilkinson MH, Degener JE. 1999. Evaluation of the effects of storage in two different swab fabrics and under three different transport conditions on recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. J Clin Microbiol 37:30413043.
5. Van Horn KG, Audette CD, Sebeck D, Tucker KA. 2008. Comparison of the Copan ESwab system with two Amies agar swab transport systems for maintenance of microorganism viability. J Clin Microbiol 46:16551658.
6. Magee C, Haury B, Rodeheaver G, Fox J, Edgerton MT, Edlieh RF. 1977. A rapid technique for quantitating wound bacterial count. Am J Surg 133:760762.
7. Reinhold CE, Nickolai DJ, Piccinni TE, Byford BA, York MK, Brooks GF. 1988. Evaluation of broth media for routine culture of cerebrospinal and joint fluid specimens. Am J Clin Pathol 89:671674.
8. Morris AJ, Wilson SJ, Marx CE, Wilson ML, Mirrett S, Reller LB. 1995. Clinical impact of bacteria and fungi recovered only from broth cultures. J Clin Microbiol 33:161165.
9. Silletti RP, Ailey E, Sun S, Tang D. 1997. Microbiologic and clinical value of primary broth cultures of wound specimens collected with swabs. J Clin Microbiol 35:20032006.
10. CLSI. 2004. Quality Assurance for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media, 3rd ed. Approved standard M22-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
11. Butler-Wu SM, Burns EM, Pottinger PS, Magaret AS, Rakeman JL, Matsen FAIII, Cookson BT. 2011. Optimization of periprosthetic culture for diagnosis of Propionibacterium acnes prosthetic joint infection. J Clin Microbiol 49:24902495.
12. Abrahamian FM, Goldstein EJC. 2011. Microbiology of animal bite wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:231246.
13. Bartlett RC, Mazens-Sullivan M, Tetreault JZ, Lobel S, Nivard J. 1994. Evolving approaches to management of quality in clinical microbiology. Clin Microbiol Rev 7:5588.
14. Hindiyeh M, Acevedo V, Carroll KC. 2001. Comparison of three transport systems (Starplex StarSwab II, the new Copan Vi-Pak Amies agar gel collection and transport swabs, and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of anaerobic and fastidious aerobic organisms. J Clin Microbiol 39:377380.
15. Matkoski C, Sharp SE, Kiska DL. 2007. Evaluation of the Q score and Q234 systems for cost-effective and clinically relevant interpretation of wound cultures. J Clin Microbiol 44:18691872.
16. Miller JM. 1996. A Guide to Specimen Management in Clinical Microbiology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
17. Perry JL. 1997. Assessment of swab transport systems for aerobic and anaerobic organism recovery. J Clin Microbiol 35:12691271.
18. Sharp SE. 1999. Algorithms for wound specimens. Clin Microbiol Newsl 21:118120.
19. Wilson M. 2005. Microbial Inhabitants of Humans: Their Ecology and Role in Health and Disease. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
1. Trampuz A, Pipker KE, Jacobson MJ, Hanssen AD, Unni KK, Osmon DR, Mandrekar JN, Cockerill FR, Steckelberg JM, Greenleef JF, Patel R. 2007. Sonication of removed hip and knee prostheses for diagnosis of infection. N Engl J Med 357:654663.
2. Piper KE, Jacobson MJ, Cofield RH, Sperling JW, Sanchez-Sotelo J, Osmon DR, McDowell A, Patrick S, Steckelberg JM, Mandrekar JN, Fernandez Sampedro M, Patel R. 2009. Microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic shoulder infection by use of implant sonication. J Clin Microbiol 47:187884.
1. Bowler PG, Duerden BI, Armstrong DG. 2001. Wound microbiology and associated approaches to wound management. Clin Microbiol Rev 14:244269.
2. Kallstrom G. 2014. Are quantitative bacterial wound cultures useful? J Clin Micro 52:27535756.
3. York MK. 2010. Procedure 3.13.2, quantitative cultures of wound tissues. In Garcia LS (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Edlich RF, Rodeheaver GT, Stevenson TR, Magee CM, Thaeker JG, Edgerton MT. 1977. Management of the contaminated wound. Compr Ther 3:6774.
5. CLSI. 2004. Quality Assurance for Commercially Prepared Microbiological Culture Media, 3rd ed. Approved standard M22-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
6. Lawrence JC, Lilly HA. 1972. A quantitative method for investigating the bacteriology of skin: its application to burns. Br J Exp Pathol 53:550558.
7. Loebl EC, Marvin JA, Heek EL, Curreri PW, Baxter CR. 1974. The use of quantitative biopsy cultures in bacteriologic monitoring of burn patients. J Surg Res 16:15.
8. Rodeheaver GT, Hiebert J, Edlich RF, Spengler M. 1980. Practical bacteriologic monitoring of the burn patient. Curr Concepts Trauma Care 3:815.
9. Magee C, Haury B, Rodeheaver G, Fox J, Edgerton MT, Edlich RF. 1977. A rapid technique for quantitating wound bacterial count. Am J Surg 133:760762.
10. Bornside GH, Bornside BB. 1979. Comparison between moist swab and tissue biopsy methods for quantitation of bacteria in experimental incisional wounds. J Trauma 19:103105.
32. Church DL, Elsayed S, Reid O, Winston B, Lindsay R. 2006. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 19:304334.
33. Heggers JR, Robson MC (ed). 1991. Quantitative Bacteriology: Its Role in the Armamentarium of the Surgeon. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Tables

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Table 3.13.1–1

Common types of superficial and deep wounds and abscesses

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Table 3.13.1–2

Aerobic and anaerobic isolates from acute and chronic skin and soft tissue infections

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Table 3.13.1–3

Commonly encountered superficial and deep-wound/abscess, drainage, and tissue infections

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13
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Table 3.13.1–4

Examples of mixed wound culture reporting

Citation: Carson J. 2016. Wound Cultures, p 3.13.1.1-3.13.2.4. In Leber A (ed), Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch3.13

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