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Chapter 6.3 : Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes

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Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

After initial isolation, subcultures must be incubated at 25, 35, and 45°C to determine the optimal temperature for growth of the microorganisms. Most isolates of nocardiae grow best at 35°C, while most isolates of grow best at 25°C. Any specimen suspected of containing a thermophilic actinomycete must also be incubated at 50°C, since all thermophiles grow at this elevated temperature. The actinomycetes can be identified to the genus level on the basis of a variety of conventional phenotypic characteristics (microscopic [Gram and acid-fast staining] and macroscopic morphologies, growth requirements, metabolism of glucose, arylsulfatase production, growth in lysozyme, and Kirby-Bauer susceptibility testing) ( ) ( procedure 6.5) and chemotaxonomic characteristics (whole-cell isomers of diaminopimelic acid and mycolic acid composition) ( Table 6.3–1 ). Some of these tests are beyond the capabilities of most clinical laboratories. However, both microscopic and macroscopic morphologies combined with a few physiologic tests can give a presumptive identification to the genus or species level. Identification is best achieved by nucleic acid amplification or mass spectrometry ( procedure 6.4) methods. A schematic flowchart for the tentative phenotypic identification of medically important aerobic actinomycetes and related genera is given in Fig. 6.3–1 .

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
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Figure 6.3–1

Schematic flowchart for tentative identification of medically important aerobic actinomycetes and related genera based on positive growth (A) or negative growth (B) in lysozyme.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
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References

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Tables

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Table 6.3–1

Results of tests used for presumptive identification of aerobic actinomycetes to genus level

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–2

Characteristics differentiating the medically important species of the genus

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–3

Differential characteristics of the genus Rhodococcus

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–4

Differential characteristics of the genus Tsukamurella

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–5

Differential characteristics of the genus

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–6

Differential physiological characteristics of the medically important species

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–7

Differentiation of nocardiae based on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3
Generic image for table
Table 6.3–8

Major constituents of the cell walls of actinomycetes

Citation: Leber A. 2016. Media and Methods Used for Phenotypic Characterization of Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 6.3.1-6.3.17. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch6.3

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