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Chapter 8.8 : Full Identification of Yeasts
Category: Clinical Microbiology
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In an era of increasing resistance of yeast species to antifungal agents and a widening range of species capable of causing diseases previously the domain of Candida albicans, there is almost no situation in which identification to species level is not warranted. This is especially true given the growth in the number of immunocompromised patients in our society, which has provided more opportunities for yeast infections to occur and to complicate and prolong the recovery period. Molecular methods to identify yeasts directly in specimens and after growth in culture are under development. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) technology (AdvanDx, Woburn, MA) allows identification of several yeasts directly from blood cultures. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) has been introduced as a method with the potential to identify a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Several research groups have used MALDI-TOF MS to identify a variety of clinically important yeasts ( 1 , 2 ). The currently FDA-approved IVD database for the Vitek MS (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) lists 68 yeast species encompassing 12 genera (including 37 species of Candida).
Anamorph-teleomorph binomials of commonly encountered yeasts a
General considerations of two commercial yeast identification systems
Examples of useful supplemental tests for yeasts a
Culture and biochemical characteristics of yeasts frequently isolated from clinical specimens a
Characteristics of selected Trichosporon spp. a
Fermentation reactions for some Candida spp. a
Key characteristics to differentiate Malassezia species