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Chapter 9.3 : M M E F S

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M M E F S, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The age of fresh fecal specimens is an important factor in the diagnosis of parasitic infections ( ). The date and time of passage must be provided for each specimen submitted to the laboratory. The physical characteristics of a fresh fecal specimen may aid in determining what types of organisms may be present ( ). Fecal specimens are described as formed, semiformed, soft, loose, or watery. Loose or watery specimens may contain trophozoites, whereas formed or semiformed specimens are more likely to contain cyst stages. Helminth eggs or larvae may be found in any type of specimen but are more difficult to find in liquid specimens because of the dilution factor. One can also see if blood and/or mucus is present, although if present, neither one necessarily indicates a parasitic infection. When the fresh specimen is examined visually in the collection container, adult pinworms () and tapeworm proglottids may also be seen.

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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Figures

Image of Figure 9.3.2–1
Figure 9.3.2–1

Ocular micrometer, top scale; stage micrometer, bottom scale (from Garcia LS, , 6th ed, 2016, ASM Press, Washington, DC).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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Image of Figure 9.3.4–1
Figure 9.3.4–1

Diagram of specimen after centrifugation (sedimentation procedure).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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Image of Figure 9.3.4–A1
Figure 9.3.4–A1

Countertop workstation that automates the microscopic analysis of fecal concentrates (Apacor Ltd USA, Brooklyn, NY) (from Garcia LS. 2016. 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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Image of Figure 9.3.4–A2
Figure 9.3.4–A2

Dual-flow-cell Optical Slide Assembly (Apacor Ltd USA, Brooklyn, NY) that fits into the stage clips of any standard upright microscope (from Garcia LS. 2016. 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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Image of Figure 9.3.5–1
Figure 9.3.5–1

Diagram of specimen after centrifugation (flotation procedure).

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818814.chap9.3
1. Ash LR, Orihel TC. 1991. Parasites: A Guide to Laboratory Procedures and Identification. ASCP Press, Chicago, IL.
2. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no (CDC) 85-8282. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
4. CLSI. 2005. Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections. Approved guideline M29-A3. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
1. Garcia LS, Smith JW, Fritsche TR. 2003. Cumitech 30A, Selection and Use of Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Coordinating ed., Garcia L. S.. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. 1999. Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
4. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
5. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia LS. 2009. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. 1999. Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
4. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
5. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
6. Neimeister R, Logan AL, Gerber B, Egleton JH, Kieger B. 1987. Hemo-De as a substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. J Clin Microbiol 25:425426.
1. Garcia LS, Smith JW, Fritsche TR. 2003. Cumitech 30A, Selection and Use of Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Coordinating ed, Garcia LS. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia LS. 2009. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. 1999. Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA.
5. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no (CDC) 85-8282. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
6. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
1. Garcia LS, Smith JW, Fritsche TR. 2003. Cumitech 30A, Selection and Use of Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Coordinating ed., Garcia L. S.. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. Garcia LS. 2009. Practical Guide to Diagnostic Parasitology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Gomori G. 1950. A rapid one-step trichrome stain. Am J Clin Pathol 20:661663.
5. Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. 1999. Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
6. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
7. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
8. Wheatley W. 1951. A rapid staining procedure for intestinal amoebae and flagellates. Am J Clin Pathol 21:990991.
1. Garcia LS, Smith JW, Fritsche TR. 2003. Cumitech 30A, Selection and Use of Laboratory Procedures for Diagnosis of Parasitic Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Coordinating ed., L. S. Garcia. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
3. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
4. Spencer FM, Monroe LS. 1976. The Color Atlas of Intestinal Parasites, 2nd ed. Charles C Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL.
35. Palmer J. 1991. Modified iron hematoxylin/kinyoun stain. Clin Microbiol Newsl 13:3940.
1. Garcia LS. 2016. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 6th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Gomori G. 1950. A rapid one-step trichrome stain. Am J Clin Pathol 20:661663.
3. Markell EK, John DT, Krotoski WA. 1999. Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology, 8th ed. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
4. Melvin DM, Brooke MM. 1985. Laboratory Procedures for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites, p 163189. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare publication no. (CDC) 85-8282. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
5. CLSI. 2005. Procedures for the Recovery and Identification of Parasites from the Intestinal Tract. Approved guideline M28-A2. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
6. Wheatley W. 1951. A rapid staining procedure for intestinal amoebae and flagellates. Am J Clin Pathol 21:990991.

Tables

Generic image for table
Diagnostic characteristics of organisms in wet mounts

Diagnostic characteristics of organisms in wet mounts

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3
Generic image for table
Staining Times

Staining Times

Citation: Leber A. 2016. M M E F S, p 9.3.1.1-9.3.8.7. In Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818814.ch9.3

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