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Chapter 3.5.1 : Risk Assessment Framework

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Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
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FIGURE 1

Elements of risk assessment and risk management. Redrawn from reference , with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1.f1

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
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FIGURE 2

Risk assessment framework schematic. Reprinted from reference , with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1.f2

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
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FIGURE 3

Problem formulation process diagram. Reprinted from reference , with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1.f3

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
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FIGURE 4

Daily risk from exposure to 100 ml reclaimed water. Data from reference . doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1.f4

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818821.Ch80
1. National Research Council. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
2. National Research Council. 2009. Science and Decisions: advancing Risk Assessment. Committee on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, EPA/630/R-95/002F. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) Tools, Methods, and Approaches for Water Media, EPA-820-R-14-009. Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
5. Haas CN, Rose JB, Gerba CP. 2014. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, 2nd ed. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
6. Dupont HC, Chappell C, Sterling C, Okhuysen P, Rose J, Jakubowski W. 1995. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy volunteers. New England J Med 332:855859.[CrossRef]
7. Ward RL, Bernstein DL, Young EC, Sherwood JR, Knowlton DR, Schiff GM. 1986. Human rotavirus studies in volunteers: determination of infectious dose and serological response to infection. J Infect Diseases 154:871880.[CrossRef]
8. Parkin RT, Soller JA, Olivieri AW. 2003. Incorporating susceptible subpopulations in microbial risk assessment: pediatric exposures to enteroviruses in river water. J Exposure Anal Environ Epidemiol 13:161168.[CrossRef]
9. Armstrong TW, Haas CN. 2007. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model for Legionnaires’ disease: animal model selection and dose-response modeling. Risk Anal 27:15811596.[PubMed][CrossRef]
10. Haas CN, Thayyar-Madabusi A, Rose JB, Gerba CP. 2000. Development of a dose-response relationship for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Intl J Food Microbiol 56:153159.[CrossRef]
11. Rose JB, Haas CN, Regli S. 1991. Risk assessment and the control of waterborne giardiasis. Am J Public Hlth 81:709713.[CrossRef]
12. Haas CN. 1996. How to average microbial densities to characterize risk. Water Res 30:10361038.[CrossRef]
13. Teunis PF, Moe CL, Liu P, Miller SE, Lindesmith L, Baric RS, Le Pendu J, Calderon RL. 2008. Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J Med Virol 80:14681476.[PubMed][CrossRef]
14. Gerba CP, Rose JB, Haas CN. 1996. Sensitive populations: who is at greatest risk? Int J Food Microbiol 30:113123.[PubMed][CrossRef]
15. Halvorsrud J, Orstavik I. 1980. An epidemic of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in nursing home for the elderly. Scand J Infect Dis 12:161164.[PubMed][CrossRef]
16. Ryan CA, Tauxe RV, Hosek GW, Wells JG, Stoesz PA, McFadden HW, Smith PW, Wright GF, Blake PA. 1986. Escherichia coli 0157:H7 diarrhea in a nursing home: clinical, epidemiological, and pathological findings. J Infect Dis 154:631638.[PubMed][CrossRef]
17. Gerba CP,. 2015. Risk assessment. Chapter 24. In Pepper IL, Gerba CP, Gentry TJ (eds.), Environmental Microbiology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
18. Matheny SC, Kingery JE. 2012. Hepatitis A. Am Fam Physician 86:10271034.[PubMed]
19. Gerba CP, Rose JB,. 1993. Estimating viral disease risk from drinking water. In Cothern CR (ed.), Comparative Environmental Risks. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Use of microbial risk assessment in setting U.S. drinking water standards. EPA 814/S-92-001. U.S. EPA Office of Water, Washington, DC.
21. World Health Organization. 2004. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Recommendations. 3rd ed., vol 1. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
22. World Health Organization. 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Incorporating the First and Second Addenda, Recommendations, 3rd ed. vol 1. WHO Press, Geneva, Switzerland.
23. Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council, Environment Protection and Heritage Council, Australian Health Ministers’ Conference. 2006. National Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managing Health and Environmental Risks. A publication of the Environment Protection and Heritage Council, the Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council and the Australian Health Ministers' Conference. Editing by Biotext Pty Ltd, Canberra.
24. Soller JA. 2009. The potential implications of person-to-person transmission of viral infection for US EPA's Groundwater Rule. J Water Health 7:208223.[PubMed]
25. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Using Graywater and Stormwater to Enhance Local Water Supplies: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
26. Birks R, Hills S. 2007. Characterization of indicator organisms and pathogens in domestic greywater for recycling. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 129:6169. 10.1007/s10661-006-9427-y.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17285257 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9427-y
27. District Department of Environment. 2013. Stormwater Management Guidebook. DDOE, Washington, DC.
28. Rose JB, Carnahan RP. 1992. Pathogen removal by full-scale wastewater treatment. Department of Environmental Regulation, Tampa, FL.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

ID50 values for selected human pathogens

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Ratio of clinical illness to subclinical infection with enteric viruses (from )

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Case-fatality rates for selected pathogens (from )

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Secondary attack rates of selected enteric viruses (from )

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Best-fit dose-response parameters for pathogen dosing studies

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Risk-based microbial levels for sites categorized as severe, high, medium, and low exposures (from )

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Stormwater exposure assumptions (adapted from )

Citation: Yates M. 2016. Risk Assessment Framework, p 3.5.1-1-3.5.1-10. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.1

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