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Chapter 2.6.2 : Surface Sampling

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Abstract:

Whether investigating a disease outbreak, performing environmental monitoring to meet industry standards or guidelines (GMP, USP 797, CODEX Alimentarius, etc.), or ensuring a clean spacecraft before launch, a clear understanding of the intricacies of surface sampling is essential in order to have confidence in the resulting data. Microbial surface sampling appears to be a simple task, but success depends upon knowledge of the molecular target or organism(s), choosing the right sampling strategy, selecting best tool (contact plates, swabs, sponges, wipes, etc.), the optimal storage conditions, and the best elution technique for recovery of the target or organism from a sampling device when one is used. Both current and historical approaches to surface sampling, as well as industry standards and the latest research on microbial surface sampling are discussed.

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Examples of swabs used for surface sampling, from top: polyester, cotton, foam, large foam tip with shaft attached to cap for transport tube. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2.f1

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Wipe materials, clockwise from top left: premoistened cellulose sponge, gauze wipe, Sponge stick. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2.f2

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Left to right: vacuum sock loaded into cardboard holder with sampling nozzle, transport cup, and vacuum sock before loading into holder. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2.f3

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

37 mm cassette with filter inside, sampling nozzle and vacuum hose adapter attached. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2.f4

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Examples of recovery efficiencies; percent of organisms recovered, relative to known inoculum placed on surfaces, counted as cultivable colonies (CFU), infective virus (PFU), or cell equivalents of DNA copies

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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TABLE 2

Comparison of surface sampling devices or sample types

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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TABLE 3

Neutralizing agents

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2
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TABLE 4

Examples of eluents and diluents for environmental surface sampling

Citation: Rose L, Noble-Wang J, Arduino M. 2016. Surface Sampling, p 2.6.2-1-2.6.2-14. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch2.6.2

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