1887

Chapter 3.2.5 : Airborne Fungi and Mycotoxins

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Airborne Fungi and Mycotoxins, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818821/9781555818821.ch3.2.5-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818821/9781555818821.ch3.2.5-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews literature on airborne fungi, with emphasis on indoor fungal growth, infestation and contamination, factors affecting airborne fungal spore populations, indoor sources of fungi, and fungal spore discharge mechanisms. It also covers the health effects of fungi and their metabolites (mycotoxins and fungal volatile organic compounds). The diseases associated with indoor fungal exposure, such as infections, allergy, respiratory diseases, hypersensitivity and toxic pneumonitis, mycotoxicoses and mucous membrane/olfactory irritations are discussed.

Citation: Li D, Johanning E, Yang C. 2016. Airborne Fungi and Mycotoxins, p 3.2.5-1-3.2.5-21. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.5
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.5
1. Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CM, Blackwell M. 1996. Introductory Mycology, p. 4. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
2. Carroll GC. 1992. The Fungal Community: its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
3. Griffin DH. 1996. Fungal Physiology. Wiley-Liss, New York.
4. Gravesen S, Frisvad JC, Samson RA. 1994. Microfungi. Munksgaard International Publishers, Copenhagen.
5. Miller JD. 1992. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air. Atmos Environ A Gen Top 26( 12) : 2163 2172.[CrossRef]
6. Miller JD. 1992. Fungi and the Building Engineer.
7. Samson RA, Flannigan B, Flannigan M, Verhoeff A, Adan O, Hoekstra E. 1994. Health Implications of Fungi in Indoor Environments Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
8. Samson RA,. 2011. Ecology and general characteristics of indoor fungi, pp. 101 116. In Adan OC,, Samson RA (eds), Fundamentals of Mold Growth in Indoor Environments and Strategies for Healthy Living. Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen.
9. Miller J, Day J. 1997. Indoor mold exposures: epidemiology, consequences and immune therapy. Can J Allergy Clin Immunol 2: 25 32.
10. Miller JD,. 2011. Health effects from mold and dampness in housing in western societies: early epidemiology studies and barriers to further progress, p. 183 210. In Adan OC,, Samson RA (eds), Fundamentals of Mold Growth in Indoor Environments and Strategies for Healthy Living. Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen.
11. Li DW, Yang CS. 2004. Notes on indoor fungi I: new records and noteworthy fungi from indoor environments. Mycotaxon 89( 2) : 473 488.
12. Kendrick B. 2001. The Fifth Kingdom. Mycologue Publishing, Sydney, British Columbia.
13. O'Driscoll B, Powell G, Chew F, Niven R, Miles J, Vyas A, Denning D. 2009. Comparison of skin prick tests with specific serum immunoglobulin E in the diagnosis of fungal sensitization in patients with severe asthma. Clin Exper Allergy 39( 11) : 1677 1683.[CrossRef]
14. Denning DW, O'Driscoll BR, Powell G, Chew F, Atherton GT, Vyas A, Miles J, Morris J, Niven RM. 2009. Randomized controlled trial of oral antifungal treatment for severe asthma with fungal sensitization the fungal asthma sensitization trial (FAST) study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179( 1) : 11 18.[PubMed][CrossRef]
15. Ogawa H, Fujimura M, Takeuchi Y, Makimura K. 2012. Role of fungal colonization for sensitization in asthma. Clin Exper Allergy 42( 10) : 1540 1541.[CrossRef]
16. Cole RJ, Cox RH. 1981. Handbook of Toxic Fungal Metabolites. Academic Press, New York.
17. Macher J. 1999. Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH.
18. Korpi A, Järnberg J, Pasanen A-L. 2009. Microbial volatile organic compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 39( 2) : 139 193.[PubMed][CrossRef]
19. Betina V. 1989. Mycotoxins. Chemical, Biological and Environmental Aspects. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
20. Wyllie TD, Morehouse LG. 1977. Mycotoxic Fungi and Chemistry of Mycotoxins. Marcel Dekker, New York.
21. Sharma RP, Salunkhe DK. 1991. Mycotoxins and Phytoalexins. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
22. Nielsen KF, Frisvad JC,. 2011. Mycotoxins on building materials, p. 245 275. In Adan O,, Samson R (eds), Fundamentals of Mold Growth in Indoor Environments and Strategies for Healthy Living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.
23. Johanning E, Biagini R, Hull DL, Morey P, Jarvis B, Landsbergis P. 1996. Health and immunology study following exposure to toxigenic fungi ( Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 68( 4) : 207 218.[PubMed]
24. Moularat S, Hulin M, Robine E, Annesi-Maesano I, Caillaud D. 2011. Airborne fungal volatile organic compounds in rural and urban dwellings: detection of mould contamination in 94 homes determined by visual inspection and airborne fungal volatile organic compounds method. Sci Tot Environ 409( 11) : 2005 2009.[CrossRef]
25. Ammann H. 1999. Microbial volatile organic compounds.
26. Batterman SA,. 1995. Sampling and analysis of biological volatile organic compounds, p. 249 268. In Cox C,, Wathes C (eds), Bioaerosols Handbook. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.
27. Ezeonu I, Price D, Simmons R, Crow S, Ahearn D. 1994. Fungal production of volatiles during growth on fiberglass. App Environ Microbiol 60( 11) : 4172 4173.
28. Gregory P. 1973. The Microbiology of the Atmosphere. Plant Science Monographs 377.
29. Flannigan B, McCabe E, McGarry F. 1991. Allergenic and toxigenic micro-organisms in houses. J Appl Bacteriol 70( S) : 61S 73S.
30. Lacey J. 1981. The aerobiology of conidial fungi, p. 373 416. In Cole GT, Kendrick B (eds), Biology of Conidial Fungi, vol 1. Academic Press, New York.[CrossRef]
31. Lacey J. 1991. Aerobiology and health: the role of airborne fungal spores in respiratory disease, p. 157 185. In Frontiers in Mycology CAB International, Oxon, UK.
32. Levetin E. 1991. Identification and concentration of airborne basidiospores. Grana 30( 1) : 123 128.[CrossRef]
33. Levetin E,. 1995. Fungi, p. 87 120. In Burge H (ed), Bioaerosols. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
34. Dotson KB,, Patton LE,, Ryan TJ,, Throckmorton JV,, Weekes DM. 2004. Assessment, Remediation, and Post-Remediation Verification of Mold in Buildings, Assessment, Remediation, and Post-Remediation Verification of Mold in Buildings. AIHA, Fairfax, VA.
35. Prezant B, Weekes DM, Miller JD. 2008. Recognition, Evaluation, and Control of Indoor Mold. AIHA, Fairfax, VA .
36. Dillon HK, Heinsohn PA, Miller JD. 2005. Field Guide for the Determination of Biological Contaminants in Environmental Samples. AIHA, Fairfax, VA .
37. Nagarajan S, Singh D. 1990. Long-distance dispersion of rust pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 28( 1) : 139 153.[PubMed][CrossRef]
38. Asai G. 1960. Intra-and inter-regional movement of uredospores of black stem rust in the upper Mississippi river valley. Phytopathology 50( 7) : 535 541.
39. Burge HA,. 1990. The fungi, p. 136 162. In Morey P,, Feeley J,, Otten J (eds). Biological Contaminants in Indoor Environments. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
40. Burge H. 1990. Bioaerosols: prevalence and health effects in the indoor environment. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86( 5) : 687 701.[PubMed][CrossRef]
41. Li DW, Yang CS. 2004. Fungal contamination as a major contributor to sick building syndrome. Adv Appl Microbiol 55: 31 112.[CrossRef]
42. Yang CS,. 1995. Understanding the biology of fungi found indoors, p. 131 137. In Johanning E,, Yang CS (eds), Fungi and Bacteria in Indoor Environments: Health Effects, Detection and Remediation. Eastern New York Occupational Health Program, Albany, NY.
43. Morrison J, Yang C, Lin KT, Haugland R, Neely A, Vesper S. 2004. Monitoring Aspergillus species by quantitative PCR during construction of a multi-storey hospital building. J Hosp Infect 57( 1) : 85 87.[PubMed][CrossRef]
44. Noble W, Clayton YM. 1963. Fungi in the air of hospital wards. Jf Gen Microbiol 32( 3) : 397 402.[CrossRef]
45. Solomon WR, Burge HP, Boise JR. 1978. Airborne Aspergillus fumigatus levels outside and within a large clinical center. J Allergy Clin Immunol 62( 1) : 56 60.[PubMed][CrossRef]
46. Streifel A, Rhame F. 1993. Hospital air filamentous fungal spore and particle counts in a specially designed hospital. Proc Indoor Air 4: 161 163.
47. Brun C, Miron D, SILLA L, Pasqualotto A. 2012. Fungal spore concentrations in two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) units containing distinct air control systems. Epidemiol Infect 1( 1) : 1 5.
48. Okten S, Asan A. 2012. Airborne fungi and bacteria in indoor and outdoor environment of the Pediatric Unit of Edirne Government Hospital. Environ Monit Assess 184( 3) : 1739 1751.[PubMed][CrossRef]
49. Burge HA,. 1995. Bioaerosols in the residential environment, p. 579 597. In Cox C,, Wathes C (eds), Bioaerosols Gandbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
50. DeKoster JA, Thorne PS. 1995. Bioaerosol concentrations in noncomplaint, complaint, and intervention homes in the Midwest. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 56( 6) : 573 580.[CrossRef]
51. Macher JM, Huang FY, Flores M. 1991. A two-year study of microbiological indoor air quality in a new apartment. Arch Environ Health 46( 1) : 25 29.[PubMed][CrossRef]
52. Strachan DP, Flannigan B, McCabe EM, McGarry F. 1990. Quantification of airborne moulds in the homes of children with and without wheeze. Thorax 45( 5) : 382 387.[PubMed][CrossRef]
53. Verhoeff A, Wijnen JH, Boleij J, Brunekreef B, Reenen-Hoekstra ES, Samson R. 1990. Enumeration and identification of airborne viable mould propagules in houses. Allergy 45( 4) : 275 284.[PubMed][CrossRef]
54. Li DW, Kendrick B. 1995. A year-round comparison of fungal spores in indoor and outdoor air. Mycologia 190 195.[CrossRef]
55. Tischer CG, Heinrich J. 2013. Exposure assessment of residential mould, fungi and microbial components in relation to children's health: Achievements and challenges. Int J Hyg Environ Health 216( 2) : 109 114.[PubMed][CrossRef]
56. Dungy C, Kozak P, Gallup J, Galant S. 1986. Aeroallergen exposure in the elementary school setting. Ann Allergy 56( 3) : 218 221.[PubMed]
57. Levetin E, Shaughnessy R, Fisher E, Ligman B, Harrison J, Brennan T. 1995. Indoor air quality in schools: exposure to fungal allergens. Aerobiologia 11( 1) : 27 34.[CrossRef]
58. Hussin NHM, Sann LM, Shamsudin MN, Hashim Z. 2011. Characterization of bacteria and fungi bioaerosol in the indoor air of selected primary schools in Malaysia. Indoor Built Environ 20( 6) : 607 617.[CrossRef]
59. Morey P, Hodgson M, Sorenson W, Kullman G, Rhodes W,, Visvesvara G. 1984. Environmental studies in moldy office buildings: biological agents, sources and preventive measures. ACGIH 10( 1) : 21 35.
60. Bluyssen PM, Aries M, van Dommelen P. 2011. Comfort of workers in office buildings: the European HOPE project. Build Environ 46( 1) : 280 288.[CrossRef]
61. Burge HA. 1993. Characterization of Bioaerosols in Buildings in the United States. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.
62. Llewellyn GC, O'Rear CE. 1990. Biodeterioration Research 3: Mycotoxins, Biotoxins, Wood Decay, Air Quality, Cultural Properties, General Biodeterioration, and Degradation. Plenum Press, New York.
63. Morgan-Jones G, Jacobsen B. 1988. Notes on hyphomycetes. LVIII. Some dematiaceous taxa, including two undescribed species of Cladosporium, associated with biodeterioration of carpet, plaster and wallpaper. Mycotaxon 32: 223.
64. Seifert KA, Frisvad JC,. 2000. Penicillium on solid wood products, p. 285 298. In Samson RA,, Pitt JI (eds), Integration of modern taxonomic methods from Penicillium and Aspergillus classification. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
65. Zabel RA, Morrell JJ. 1992. Wood Microbiology: Decay and its Prevention. Academic Press, New York.
66. Hocking AD, Miscamble BF. 1995. Water relations of some Zygomycetes isolated from food. Mycol Res 99( 9) : 1113 1118.[CrossRef]
67. Smith D, Onions AHS. 1994. The Preservation and Maintenance of Living Fungi, 2nd ed. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
68. Troller J, Scott V,. 1992. Measurement of water activity (a w) and acidity, p. 135 151. In Vanderzant C,, Splittstoesser DF (eds), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
69. Adan OCG, Huinink HP, Bekker M,. 2011. Water relations of fungi in indoor environments, p. 41 65. In Adan OC,, Samson RA (eds), Fundamentals of mold growth in indoor environments and strategies for healthy living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
70. Huinink HP, Adan OCG,. 2011. Fungal growth and humidity fluctuations: a toy model, p. 67 82. In Adan OCG,, Samson R (eds), Fundamentals of mold growth in indoor environments and strategies for healthy living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
71. Ingold CT. 1965. Spore liberation. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
72. Ingold CT. 1971. Their liberation and dispersal. Fungal spores, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
73. Li DW. 2011. Five trillion basidiospores in a fruiting body of Calvatia gigantea. Mycosphere 2( 4) : 457 462.
74. Benaim-Pinto C. 1992. Sensitization to basidiomycetes and to Fuligo septica (Myxomycete) in Venezuelan atopic patients suffering from respiratory allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol ( 89) : 282 289.
75. Butcher BT, O'Neil CE, Reed MA, Altman LC, Lopez M, Lehrer SB. 1987. Basidiomycete allergy: measurement of spore-specific IgE antibodies. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80( 6) : 803 809.[PubMed][CrossRef]
76. Davis W, Horner W, Salvaggio J, Lehrer S. 1988. Basidiospore allergens: analysis of Coprinus quadrifidus spore, cap, and stalk extracts. Clin Exper Allergy 18( 3) : 261 267.[CrossRef]
77. Giannini E, Northey W, Leathers C. 1975. The allergenic significance of certain fungi rarely reported as allergens. Ann Allergy 35( 6) : 372.[PubMed]
78. Lehrer SB, Lopez M, Butcher BT, Olson J, Reed M, Salvaggio JE. 1986. Basidiomycete mycelia and spore-allergen extracts: skin test reactivity in adults with symptoms of respiratory allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78( 3) : 478 485.[PubMed][CrossRef]
79. Santilli J, Rockwell W, Collins R. 1985. The significance of the spores of the basidiomycetes (mushrooms and their allies) in bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy 55( 3) : 469 71.[PubMed]
80. Rivera-Mariani FE, Nazario-Jiménez S, López-Malpica F, Bolaños-Rosero B. 2011. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes’ crude extracts in a tropical environment. Med Mycol 49( 8) : 887 891.[PubMed]
81. Singh J,. 1994. Nature and extent of deterioration in buildings due to fungi, p. 34 53. In Singh J (ed), Building Mycology. Chapman and Hall, London.
82. Schmidt O, Huckfeldt T,. 2011. Characteristics and identification of indoor wood-decaying basidiomycetes, p. 117 180. In Adan OC, Samson RA (eds), Fundamentals of Mold Growth in Indoor Environments and Strategies for Healthy Living. Wageningen Academic Press, Wageningen.
83. Lin K-T, Li D-W, Denis DA, Woodcock R, Yang CS,. 2005. Qualitative identification of Meruliporia incrassata using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), p. 335 342. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi, Bacteria, Mycotoxins and Human Health: Patho-physiology, Clinical Effects, Exposure Assessment, Prevention and Control in Indoor Environments and Work. Fungal Research Group Foundation, Albany, NY.
84. Smith EG. 1990. Sampling and Identifying Allergenic Pollens and Molds. Blewstone Press, San Antonio, TX.
85. Samson R, Houbraken J, Summerbell R, Flannigan B, Miller J,. 2001. Common and important species of fungi and actinomycetes in indoor environments, p. 287 292. In Flannigan B,, Samson RA,, Miller JD (eds), Microogranisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments. Taylor & Francis, London.
86. Rivera-Mariani FE, Nazario-Jiménez S, López-Malpica F, Bolaños-Rosero B. 2011. Sensitization to airborne ascospores, basidiospores, and fungal fragments in allergic rhinitis and asthmatic subjects in san juan, puerto rico. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 155( 4) : 322 334.[PubMed][CrossRef]
87. Blackwell M,. 1990. Air dispersed spores of myxomycetes, p. 51 52. In Smith EG (ed), Sampling and Identifying Allergenic Pollens and Molds. Blewstone Press, San Antonio, TX.
88. Yang CS, Hung L-L, Lewis FA, Zampiello FA. 1993. Airborne fungal populations in non-residential buildings in the United States. Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.
89. Von Essen S, Robbins RA, Thompson AB, Rennard SI. 1990. Organic dust toxic syndrome: an acute febrile reaction to organic dust exposure distinct from hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Clin Toxicol 28( 4) : 389 420.[CrossRef]
90. Womble S, Burton L, Kolb L, Girman J, Hadwen G, Carpenter M, McCarthy J. 1999. Prevalence and concentrations of culturable airborne fungal spores in 86 office buildings from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study. Indoor Air 99: 261 266.
91. Shelton BG, Kirkland KH, Flanders WD, Morris GK. 2002. Profiles of airborne fungi in buildings and outdoor environments in the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol 68( 4) : 1743 1753.[PubMed][CrossRef]
92. Horner WE, Worthan AG, Morey PR. 2004. Air-and dustborne mycoflora in houses free of water damage and fungal growth. Appl Environ Microbiol 70( 11) : 6394 6400.[PubMed][CrossRef]
93. Raper KB, Fennell DI. 1965. The genus Aspergillus. Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
94. Ohtsuki T. 1962. Studies on the glass mould. V. On two species of Aspergillus isolated from glass. Bot Mag Tokyo 75: 436 442.[CrossRef]
95. Scott J, Untereiner WA, Wong B, Straus NA, Malloch D. 2004. Genotypic variation in Penicillium chysogenum from indoor environments. Mycologia 96( 5) : 1095 1105.[PubMed][CrossRef]
96. Houbraken J, Frisvad JC, Samson RA. 2011. Fleming's penicillin producing strain is not Penicillium chrysogenum but P. rubens. IMA Fungus Global Mycol J 2( 1) : 87.[CrossRef]
97. Johanning E, Gareis M, Yang CS, Hintikka EL, Nikulin M, Jarvis B, Dietrich R. 1999. Toxicity screening of materials from buildings with fungal indoor air quality problems ( Stachybotrys chartarum). Mycotox Res 14( 2) : 60 73.
98. Li DW, Kendrick B, Spero D, Macdonald C. 2008. Balaniopsis triangularis sp. nov. from indoor environments. Mycotaxon 105 : 105.
99. Corda ACJ. 1837. Icones fungorum hucusque cognitorum. Calve, Prague.
100. Amend AS, Seifert KA, Samson R, Bruns TD. 2010. Indoor fungal composition is geographically patterned and more diverse in temperate zones than in the tropics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107( 31) : 13748 13753.[PubMed][CrossRef]
101. Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Søndergaard I, Rasmussen IS, Larsen LS. 2011. Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials. Appl Environ Microbiol 77( 12) : 4180 4188.[PubMed][CrossRef]
102. Yang CS. 1996. Fungal colonization of HVAC fiber-glass air-duct liner in the U.S. Institute of Health, Minatoku, Tokyo.
103. Heinemann S, Begiun H, Nolard N, Samson R, Flannigan B, Flannigan M, Verhoeff A, Adan O, Hoekstra E. 1994. Biocontamination in air-conditioning. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
104. Kemp SJ, Kuehn TH, Pui DYH, Vesley D, Streifel AJ. 1995. Growth of microorganisms on HVAC filters under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. ASHRAE Trans 101( 1) : 305 316.
105. Buttner MP, Cruz-Perez P, Garrett PJ, Stetzenbach LD. 1999. Dispersal of fungal spores from three types of air handling system duct material. Aerobiologia 15( 1) : 1 8.[CrossRef]
106. Schmidt O. 2007. Indoor wood-decay basidiomycetes: damage, causal fungi, physiology, identification and characterization, prevention and control. Mycol Prog 6( 4) : 261 279.[CrossRef]
107. Kauserud H, Knudsen H, Högberg N, Skrede I. 2012. Evolutionary origin, worldwide dispersal, and population genetics of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Fung Biol Rev 26( 2–3) : 84 93.[CrossRef]
108. Alfredsen G, Solheim H, Jenssen K. 2005. Evaluation of decay fungi in Norwegian buildings. IRG/WP 10562: 1 12.
109. Duncan C. 1965. Fungi associated with principal decays in wood products in the United States. Res. Pap. WO-4, U.S. Forest Service, Wisconsin.
110. Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE. 1992. Medical mycology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
111. Pfaller M, Fromtling R,. 1999. Mycology, p. 1159 1326. In Murray PR,, Baron EJ,, Pfaller MA,, Tenover FC,, Yolken RH (eds), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. American Society for Microbiology Press, Washington, DC.
112. Institute of Medicine. 2000. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
113. Institute of Medicine. 2004. Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
114. Pope AMP, Patterson R, Burge HA. 1993. Indoor Allergens: Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
115. WHO. 2009. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Dampness and Mould. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen.
116. Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, Douwes J. 2011. Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect 119( 6) : 748.[PubMed][CrossRef]
117. Koskinen OM, Husman TM, Meklin TM, Nevalainen AI. 1999. Adverse health effects in children associated with moisture and mold observations in houses. Int J Environ Health Res 9( 2) : 143 156.[CrossRef]
118. Olsen J, Dragsted L, Autrup H. 1988. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark. Br J Cancer 58( 3) : 392.[PubMed][CrossRef]
119. WHO & National Agency For Research On Cancer (Iarc). 1993. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carconogenic Risks to Humans. World Health Organization (IARC), Lyon, France.
120. Johanning E, Landsbergis P, Gareis M, Yang CS, Olmsted E. 1999. Clinical experience and results of a Sentinel Health Investigation related to indoor fungal exposure. Environ Health Perspect 107( Suppl 3) : 489.[PubMed][CrossRef]
121. Ammann HM,. 1999. IAQ and human toxicosis: empirical evidence and theory, p. 84 93. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
122. Lorenz W, Sigrist G, Shakibaei M, Mobasheri A, Trautmann C. 2006. A hypothesis for the origin and pathogenesis of rheumatoid diseases. Rheumatol Int 26( 7) : 641 654.[PubMed][CrossRef]
123. Carey SA, Plopper CG, Hyde DM, Islam Z, Pestka JJ, Harkema JR. 2012. Satratoxin-G from the black mold Stachybotrys chartarum induces rhinitis and apoptosis of olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal airways of rhesus monkeys. Toxicol Pathol 40( 6) : 887 898.[PubMed][CrossRef]
124. Burge H, Ammann H,. 1999. Fungal toxins and β (1→3)-d-glucans. In Macher J,, Ammann H,, Burge H,, Milton D,, Morey P (eds), Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control. ACGIH, Cincinnati, OH.
125. Husman T. 1996. Health effects of indoor-air microorganisms. Scand J Work, Environ Health 22( 1) : 5 13.[CrossRef]
126. Putus T, Johanning E. 2005. Health effects of moisture damage associated microbes, Proceedings of the 5th international conference: Bioaerosols, fungi, bacteria, mycotoxins and human health. Fungal Research Group Foundation, Inc. Albany, NY: Boyd publishing, 94 107.
127. Samson R. 1992. Mycotoxins: a mycologist's perspective. Med Mycol 30( S1) : 9 18.[CrossRef]
128. Stetzenbach L, Amman H, Johanning E, King G, Shaughnessy R. 2004. Microorganisms, mold and indoor air quality. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
129. Brunekreef B, Dockery DW, Speizer FE, Ware JH, Spengler JD, Ferris BG. 1989. Home dampness and respiratory morbidity in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 140( 5) : 1363 1367.[CrossRef]
130. Hyvärinen A, Reponen T, Husman T, Nevalainen A. 2001. Comparison of the indoor air quality in mould damaged and reference buildings in a subarctic climate. Cent Eur J Public Health 9( 3) : 133.[PubMed]
131. Nevalainen A, Partanen P, Jääskeläinen E, Hyvärinen A, Koskinen O, Meklin T, Vahteristo M, Koivisto J, Husman T. 2010. Prevalence of moisture problems in Finnish houses. Indoor Air 8( S4) : 45 49.[CrossRef]
132. Bonham RE. 2005. A review of the IOM report on mold. Tex Med 100( 12) : 55 57.
133. Fisk WJ, Lei-Gomez Q, Mendell MJ. 2007. Meta-analyses of the associations of respiratory health effects with dampness and mold in homes. Indoor Air 17( 4) : 284 296.[PubMed][CrossRef]
134. Rylander R,. 1999. Effects after mold exposure—which are the causative agents? p. 28 32. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
135. Pfaller MA,. 1992. Opportunistic fungal infections, In Last JM,, Wallace RB (eds), Maxcy-Rosenau Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 13th ed. Appleton and Lange, East Norwalk, CT.
136. Kaplan JE, Jones JL, Dykewicz CA. 2000. Protists as opportunistic pathogens: public health impact in the 1990s and beyond1. J Eukaryot Microbiol 47( 1) : 15 20.[PubMed][CrossRef]
137. Pitt JI. 1979. The genus Penicillium and its teleomorphic states. Eupenicillium and Talaromyces, Academic Press, London, UK.
138. Kurup VP,. 1999. Allergens, diagnosis, and pathogenesis, p. 620 625. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
139. CDC. 2012. Multistate outbreak of fungal infection associated with injection of methylprednisolone acetate solution from a single compounding pharmacy—united states, 2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61( 41) : 839842.
140. CDC. 2012. Multistate Fungal Neningitis Outbreak Investigation. CDC, Atlanta, GA.
141. Benenson AS. 1990. Control of Communicable Disease in Man. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
142. Fatterpekar G, Mukherji S, Arbealez A, Maheshwari S, Castillo M. 1999. Fungal Diseases of the Paranasal Sinuses. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
143. Kern EB, Ponikau JU, Sherris DA, Kita H,. 2012. Fungi and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS): cause and effect. In Johanning EPM,, Auger P (eds), Bioaerosols—6th International Scientific Conference on Bioaerosols, Fungi, Bacteria, Mycotoxins in Indoor and Outdoor Environments and Human Health. Fungal Research Group Foundation, Albany, NY.
144. Ponikau JU, Sherris DA, Kern EB, Homburger HA, Frigas E, Gaffey TA, Roberts GD. 1999. The diagnosis and incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis. Mayo Clin Proc 74( 9) : 877 884.[PubMed][CrossRef]
145. Park JH, Kreiss K, Cox-Ganser JM. 2012. Rhinosinusitis and mold as risk factors for asthma symptoms in occupants of a water-damaged building. Indoor Air 22: 396 404.[CrossRef]
146. Salez F, Lamblin C, Wallaert B. 2000. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Rev Mal Resp 17( 1 Pt 2) : 265 278.
147. Wark PAB, Gibson PG. 2001. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: new concepts of pathogenesis and treatment. Respirology 6( 1) : 1 7.[PubMed][CrossRef]
148. Bellanti JA. 2006. Literature review: The best new articles in the specialty of allergy, asthma, and immunology, 2004–2005. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 27( 3) : 186 196.[PubMed][CrossRef]
149. Denning D, O'driscoll B, Hogaboam C, Bowyer P, Niven R. 2006. The link between fungi and severe asthma: a summary of the evidence. Eur Respir J 27( 3) : 615 626.[PubMed][CrossRef]
150. Chapman JA. 1999. Update on airborne mold and mold allergy. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 20( 5) : 289 292.[PubMed]
151. Gravesen S. 1979. Fungi as a cause of allergic disease. Allergy 34( 3) : 135 154.[PubMed][CrossRef]
152. Horwitz R, Bush R,. 1997. Allergens and other factors important in atopic disease, p. 75 129. In Patterson R,, Grammer LC,, Greenberger PA (eds), Allergic Diseases, Diagnosis and Management, 5th ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.
153. Burr M. 1999. Indoor fungal exposure—does it matter, and what can be done about it? Clin Exper Allergy J Br Soc Allergy Clin Immunol 29( 11) : 1442 1444.[CrossRef]
154. Horner W, Lehrer S,. 1999. Why are there still problems with fungal allergen extracts? p. 313 319. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Contr ol. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
155. Dales RE, Burnett R, Zwanenburg H. 1991. Adverse health effects among adults exposed to home dampness and molds. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 143( 3) : 505 509.[CrossRef]
156. Johanning E, Morey PR, Jarvis BB. 1993. Clinical-epidemiological investigation of health effects caused by Stachybotrys atra building contamination: V.1 Health effects. Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.
157. Ruotsalainen R, Jaakkola N, Jaakkola J. 1995. Dampness and molds in day-care centers as an occupational health problem. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66( 6) : 369 374.[PubMed][CrossRef]
158. Smith JE, Anderson JG, Lewis CW, Murad YM. 1992. Cytotoxic fungal spores in the indoor atmosphere of the damp domestic environment. FEMS Microbiol Lett 100( 1) : 337 343.[PubMed][CrossRef]
159. Spengler JD, Neas L, Nalai S, Dockery D, Speizer F, Ware J, Raizenne M. 1993. Respiratory symptoms and housing characteristics. Vol. 1 Health effects. Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.
160. Storey E, Dangman K, Schenck P, DeBernardo R, Yang C, Bracker A, Hodgson M. 2004. Guidance for clinicians on the recognition and management of health effects related to mold exposure and moisture indoors. University of Connecticut Health Center, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Center for Indoor Environments and Health, Farmington, CT.
161. Strachan DP, Elton RA. 1986. Relationship between respiratory morbidity in children and the home environment. Fam Pract 3( 3) : 137 142.[PubMed][CrossRef]
162. Bornehag CG, Blomquist G, Gyntelberg F, Jarvholm B, Malmberg P, Nordvall L, Nielsen A, Pershagen G, Sundell J. 2001. Dampness in buildings and health. Indoor Air 11( 2) : 72 86.[PubMed][CrossRef]
163. Cox-Ganser JM, White SK, Jones R, Hilsbos K, Storey E, Enright PL, Rao CY, Kreiss K. 2005. Respiratory morbidity in office workers in a water-damaged building. Environ Health Perspect 113( 4) : 485 490.[PubMed][CrossRef]
164. Dangman KH, Bracker AL, Storey E. 2005. Work-related asthma in teachers in Connecticut: association with chronic water damage and fungal growth in schools. Conn Med 69( 1) : 9 17.[PubMed]
165. Peat JK, Dickerson J, Li J. 2007. Effects of damp and mould in the home on respiratory health: a review of the literature. Allergy 53( 2) : 120 128.[CrossRef]
166. Gent JF, Kezik JM, Hill ME, Tsai E, Li DW, Leaderer BP. 2012. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Environ Res 118( Oct) : 86 93.[PubMed][CrossRef]
167. Nielsen KF, Huttunen K, Hyvärinen A, Andersen B, Jarvis BB, Hirvonen MR. 2002. Metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys isolates from water-damaged buildings and their induction of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxicity in macrophages. Mycopathologia 154( 4) : 201 206.[PubMed][CrossRef]
168. Nikulin M. 1999. Toxigenic Stachybotrys chartarum in water-damaged building materials: ecology and biology. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
169. Taskinen T, Laitinen S, Nevalainen A, Vepsäläinen A, Meklin T, Reiman M, Korppi M, Husman T. 2002. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to moulds in school-children from moisture problem schools. Allergy 57( 1) : 9 16.[PubMed][CrossRef]
170. Jaakkola JJK, Hwang BF, Jaakkola N. 2005. Home dampness and molds, parental atopy, and asthma in childhood: a six-year population-based cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 113( 3) : 357.[PubMed][CrossRef]
171. Ehrenstein V, Mutius V, Kries V. 2001. Reduced risk of hay fever and asthma among children of farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 30( 2) : 187 193.[CrossRef]
172. Jaakkola MS, Nordman H, Piipari R, Uitti J, Laitinen J, Karjalainen A, Hahtola P, Jaakkola JJK. 2002. Indoor dampness and molds and development of adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study. Environ Health Perspect 110( 5) : 543.[PubMed][CrossRef]
173. Kilpeläinen M, Terho E, Helenius H, Koskenvuo M. 2002. Childhood farm environment and asthma and sensitization in young adulthood. Allergy 57( 12) : 1130 1135.[PubMed][CrossRef]
174. Karvala K, Toskala E, Luukkonen R, Uitti J, Lappalainen S, Nordman H. 2011. Prolonged exposure to damp and moldy workplaces and new-onset asthma. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 84( 7) : 713 721.[PubMed][CrossRef]
175. Murr AH, Goldberg AN, Pletcher SD, Dillehay K, Wymer LJ, Vesper SJ. 2012. Some chronic rhinosinusitis patients have elevated populations of fungi in their sinuses. Laryngoscope 122: 1438 1445.[CrossRef]
176. Vesper S, McKinstry C, Haugland R, Wymer L, Bradham K, Ashley P, Cox D, Dewalt G, Friedman W. 2007. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes. J Occup Environ Med 49( 8) : 829 833.[PubMed][CrossRef]
177. Pieckova E, Jesenska Z, Wilikins K,. 1999. Microscopic fungi and their metabolites in dwellings—a bioassay study, p. 351 354. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and cOntrol. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
178. Dillon HK, Miller JD, Sorenson W, Douwes J, Jacobs RR. 1999. Review of methods applicable to the assessment of mold exposure to children. Environ Health Perspect 107( Suppl 3) : 473 480.[PubMed][CrossRef]
179. Miller JD, Dales R, White J,. 1999. Exposure measures for studies of mold and dampness and respiratory health, p. 298 305. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
180. Ammann HM,. 1999. ACGIH TLV Statement on bioaerosols; American Council of Government Industrial Hygienists, p. 520 521. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
181. Anonymous. 1994. Recommendations, p. 531538. In Samson RA,, Flannigan B,, Flannigan ME,, VerHoeff AP,, Adan OCG,, Hoekstra ES (eds), Health Implications of Fungi in Indoor Environments. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
182. Barnes C, Buckley S, Pacheco F, Portnoy J. 2002. IgE-reactive proteins from Stachybotrys chartarum. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89( 1) : 29 33.[PubMed][CrossRef]
183. Chung YJ, Copeland LB, Doerfler DL, Ward MDW. 2010. The relative allergenicity of Stachybotrys chartarum compared to house dust mite extracts in a mouse model. Inhal Toxicol 22( 6) : 460 468.[PubMed][CrossRef]
184. Nagayoshi M, Tada Y, West J, Ochiai E, Watanabe A, Toyotome T, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Shigeta A, Yasuda T. 2011. Inhalation of Stachybotrys chartarum evokes pulmonary arterial remodeling in mice, attenuated by rho-kinase inhibitor. Mycopathologia 1 11.
185. Yike I, Dearborn D. 2011. Guest editorial—novel insights into the pathology of Stachybotrys chartarum. Mycopathologia 1 3.[CrossRef]
186. Rakkestad KE, Skaar I, Ansteinsson VE, Solhaug A, Holme JA, Pestka JJ, Samuelsen JT, Dahlman HJ, Hongslo JK, Becher R. 2010. DNA damage and DNA damage responses in THP-1 monocytes after exposure to spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin. Toxicol Sci 115( 1) : 140 155.[PubMed][CrossRef]
187. Henson PM, Murphy RC. 1989. Mediator of the Inflammatory Process. Elsevier, New York.
188. Rylander R, Jacobs RR. 1994. Organic Dusts Exposure, Effects, and Prevention. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
189. Rylander R,. 1994. Office and domestic environments, p. 247 255. In Rylander R, Jacobs RR (eds), Organic Dusts: Exposure, Effects, and Prevention. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.
190. Rylander R, Etzel R. 1999. Introduction and summary: workshop on children's health and indoor mold exposure. Environ Health Perspect 107( Suppl 3) : 465 468.[PubMed][CrossRef]
191. Johanning E,. 1999. Overview of waste management in the United States and recent research activities about composting related occupational health risks, p. 127 140. In Eikmann T,, Hofmann R (eds), Stand von Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technik zu siedlungshygienischen Aspekten der Abfallentsorgung und -verwertung. (Status assessment of science, research and techniques related to hygiene in waste-management and -use) Berlin, Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN. Band 30. Schriftenreihedes Vereins für Wasser-. Boden- und Lufthygiene, Berlin, Germany.
192. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1994. Request for assistance in preventing organic dust toxic syndrome. DHHS, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH.
193. Bünger J, Muller M, Stalder K, Hallier E,. 1999. Immunological biomonitoring in the assessment of exposure to airborne fungi from waste handling, p. 112 118. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
194. Chiba S, Okada S, Suzuki Y, Watanuki Z, Mitsuishi Y, Igusa R, Sekii T, Uchiyama B. 2009. Cladosporium species-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis in household environments. Intern Med 48( 5) : 363 367.[PubMed][CrossRef]
195. Jacobs RL, Thorner RE, Holcomb JR, Schwietz LA, Jacobs FO. 1986. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Cladosporium in an enclosed hot-tub area. Ann Intern Med 105( 2) : 204 206.[PubMed][CrossRef]
196. Lee SK, Kim SS, Nahm DH, Park HS, Oh YJ, Park KJ, Kim SO, Kim SJ. 2000. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Fusarium napiforme in a home environment. Allergy 55( 12) : 1190 1193.[PubMed][CrossRef]
197. Selman M, Lacasse Y, Pardo A, Cormier Y. 2010. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by fungi. Proc Am Thorac Soc 7( 3) : 229 236.[PubMed][CrossRef]
198. Bhan U, Newstead MJ, Zeng X, Ballinger MN, Standiford LR, Standiford TJ. 2011. Stachybotrys chartarum-Induced Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Is TLR9 Dependent. Am J Pathol 179( 6) : 2779 2787.[PubMed][CrossRef]
199. Lincoff G, Mitchel DH. 1977. Toxic and Hallucinogenic Mushroom Poisoning. A Handbook for Physicians and Mushroom Hunters. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
200. Gonmori K, Fujita H, Yokoyama K, Watanabe K, Suzuki O. 2011. Mushroom toxins: a forensic toxicological review. Forens Toxicol 29( 2) : 85 94.[CrossRef]
201. Marasas W, Nelson PE. 1987. Mycotoxicology: Introduction to the Mycology, Plant Pathology, Chemistry, Toxicology, and Pathology of Naturally Occuring Mycotoxicoses in Animals and Man. Pennsylvania State University Press, State College.
202. Krogh P. 2008. The role of mycotoxins in disease of animals and man. J Appl Microbiol 67( s18) : 99s 104s.
203. Croft WA, Jarvis BB, Yatawara C. 1986. Airborne outbreak of trichothecene toxicosis. Atmos Environ (1967) 20( 3) : 549 552.[CrossRef]
204. Smoragiewicz W, Cossette B, Boutard A, Krzystyniak K. 1993. Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65( 2) : 113 117.[PubMed][CrossRef]
205. Dill I, Trautmann C, Szewzyk R. 1997. Mass development of Stachybotrys chartarum on compostable plant pots made from recycled paper. Mycoses 40: 110 114.[CrossRef]
206. Schiefer HB. 1990. Mycotoxins in Indoor Air: A Critical Toxicological Viewpoint, Vol. 1, Indoor Air ′90, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Toronto. 167 172.
207. Richard J, Payne GA, Desjardins A, Maragos C, Norred W, Pestka J. 2003. Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal and Human Systems. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Ames, IA.
208. Peitzsch M, Sulyok M, Täubel M, Vishwanath V, Seegers-Krop E, Borràs-Santos A, Hyvärinen A, Nevalainen A, Krska R, Larsson LP. 2012. Microbial secondary metabolites in school buildings inspected for moisture damage in Finland, The Netherlands and Spain. J Environ Monit 14( 8) : 2044 2053.[PubMed][CrossRef]
209. Larsen TO, Smedsgaard J, Nielsen KF, Hansen ME, Frisvad JC. 2005. Phenotypic taxonomy and metabolite profiling in microbial drug discovery. Nat Prod Rep 22( 6) : 672 695.[PubMed][CrossRef]
210. De Costa C. 2002. St Anthony's fire and living ligatures: a short history of ergometrine. Lancet 359( 9319) : 1768 1770.[PubMed][CrossRef]
211. Peraica M, Radic B, Lucic A, Pavlovic M. 1999. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. Bull World Health Organ 77( 9) : 754 766.[PubMed]
212. Matossian MK. 1991. Poisons of the Past: Molds, Epidemics, and History. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
213. Ammann HM,. 2005. Mold toxicity: risk assessment for humans exposed indoors, p. 52 58. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi, Bacteria, Mycotoxins and Human Health: Patho-physiology, Clinical Effects, Exposure Assessment, Prevention and Control in Indoor Environments and Work. Fungal Research Group Foundation, Albany, NY.
214. Miller VR, Ammann HM,. 2005. Risk assessment of fungal bioaerosols in indoor environments: Current paradigms and evolving concepts, p. 474 481. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi, Bacteria, Mycotoxins and Human Health: Patho-physiology, Clinical Effects, Exposure Assessment, Prevention and Control in Indoor Environments and Work. Fungal Research Group Foundation, Albany, NY.
215. Auger PL, Pépin P, Miller JD, Gareis M, Doyon J, Bouchard R, Pinard M-F, Mainville C,. 1999. Chronic toxic encephalopathies apparently related to exposure to toxigenic fungi, p. 131 138. In Johanning E (ed), Bioaerosols, Fungi and Mycotoxins: Health Effects, Assessment, Prevention and Control. Eastern New York Occupational and Environmental Health Center, Albany, NY.
216. Ciegler A, Burmeister HR, Vesonder RF, Hesseltine CW,. 1981. Mycotoxins: occurrence in the environment, In Shank RC (ed), Mycotoxins and N-nitroso Compound Environmental Risk. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
217. IARC. 1993. IARC Monographs in the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. World Health Organization.
218. Sorenson W. 1999. Fungal spores: hazardous to health? Environ Health Perspect 107( Suppl 3) : 469.[PubMed][CrossRef]
219. Ueno Y. 1983. Trichothecenes. Chemical, Biological and Toxicological Aspects. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
220. Ueno Y. 1985. The toxicology of mycotoxins. Crit Rev Toxicol 14( 2) : 99 132.[PubMed][CrossRef]
221. Quintela S, Villarán MC, Armentia IL, Elejalde E. 2013. Ochratoxin A removal in wine: a review. Food Control 30( 2) : 439 445.[CrossRef]
222. Saxena N, Ansari KM, Kumar R, Chaudhuri BP, Dwivedi PD, Das M. 2011. Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of Patulin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 257( 2) : 264 271.[PubMed][CrossRef]
223. Zain ME. 2011. Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. J Saudi Chem Soc 15( 2) : 129 144.[CrossRef]
224. Ferrante M, Sciacca S, Conti GO,. 2012. Carcinogen role of food by mycotoxins and knowledge gap, p. 133 162. In Pesheva M,, Dimitrov M,, Stoycheva TS (eds), Carcinogen, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.
225. Dearborn DG, Yike I, Sorenson W, Miller MJ, Etzel RA. 1999. Overview of investigations into pulmonary hemorrhage among infants in Cleveland, Ohio. Environ Health Perspect 107( Suppl 3) : 495.[PubMed][CrossRef]
226. Hodgson MJ, Morey P, Leung WY, Morrow L, Miller D, Jarvis BB, Robbins H, Halsey JF, Storey E. 1998. Building-Associated Pulmonary Disease From Exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. J Occup Environ Med 40( 3) : 241 249.[PubMed][CrossRef]
227. Gordon WA, Cantor JB, Johanning E, Charatz HJ, Ashman TA, Breeze JL, Haddad L, Abramowitz S. 2004. Cognitive impairment associated with toxigenic fungal exposure: a replication and extension of previous findings. Appl Neuropsychol 11( 2) : 65 74.[PubMed][CrossRef]