Chapter 3.2.8 : Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens

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Crop plants are subject to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, and fungi. For many pathogens the aerobiological pathway is important in disease transmission.

Airborne fungal spores and other disease propagules are frequently present in the atmosphere and pose a constant threat to crops as well as plants in the natural environment. This chapter reviews mechanisms of pathogen dispersal with the focus on wind and rain splash and also discusses both local and long distance transport. Various examples of pathogens from the groups above are described with details on the dispersal phase as well as disease forecasting and aspects of control. For many plant diseases, forecasting models are valuable tools alerting the grower regarding the likelihood of disease spread and when to apply control measures. Development of forecasting models requires an understanding of all stages of dispersal from spore takeoff to transport to deposition within the crop. Knowledge of the influence of meteorological conditions on spore development and the ability of spores to survive long-distance transport are also needed for accurately modeling disease spread. In addition to descriptions of well known plant pathogens, several emerging plant diseases are described along with the potential use of plant pathogens in anti-crop biological warfare

Citation: Levetin E. 2016. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, p 3.2.8-1-3.2.8-20. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.8
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Global spread of soybean rust caused by . Map supplied by Annalisa Ariatti, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.8.f1

Citation: Levetin E. 2016. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, p 3.2.8-1-3.2.8-20. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.8
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Major oomycete and fungal pathogens with aerobiological dispersal

Citation: Levetin E. 2016. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, p 3.2.8-1-3.2.8-20. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.8
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Examples of online plant disease forecasting systems

Citation: Levetin E. 2016. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, p 3.2.8-1-3.2.8-20. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.2.8

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