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Chapter 3.5.2 : Exposure Assessment

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Abstract:

Exposure assessment is the evaluation of the magnitude and frequency of exposure to pathogenic organisms via specified exposure pathways. Exposure assessment consists of three steps including: defining the exposure pathway; quantifying each model variable; and finally quantitatively characterizing the magnitude and frequency of exposure. In this chapter, these three steps are described in detail including considerations for data interpretation and statistical inference. Numerical examples related to drinking water consumption, wastewater irrigation of food crops and recreational water quality are provided.

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 1

Conceptual components for quantifying exposure. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f1

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 2

Schematic of exposure pathway applied for the assessment of norovirus risk via drinking water in Japan. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f2

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 3

Quantified model inputs and exposure calculated for the assessment of norovirus risk via drinking water in Japan. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f3

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 4

Native versus spiked oocyst counts from a surface water source in Australia. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f4

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 5

Maximum likelihood (solid line) and 95th percentile credible interval (dashed lines) for the gamma-distributed oocyst concentration in the surface water source (a) without considering recovery, and (b) correcting each count using an internal ColorSeed recovery control. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f5

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 6

Examples of fitted beta-distributions (inserts) and predicted source water oocyst concentration PDFs, including credible intervals, for various recovery data set sizes. Reprinted from ref 22, with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f6

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 7

Schematic of exposure pathway applied for the assessment of enteric virus risk via consumption of wastewater irrigated lettuce crops. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f7

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 8

Schematic of exposure pathway applied for comparing the exposure to pathogens depending on the fecal source to recreational waters. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f8

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 9

Predicted GI illness by reference pathogen (median, interquartile range, 10th and 90th percentiles, minimum, and maximum) for adults following a single accidental ingestion of recreational water containing fresh fecal contamination at 35 cfu/100 /ml enterococci contributed by seagulls or primar POTW effluent (T) total GI risk, (C.j.) risk; (S) risk; (C) risk; (G) risk; (N) Norovirus risk). Reprinted from ref 58, with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f9

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 10

Spearman rank correlation coefficient for exposure parameter inputs to the predicted probability of GI illness from accidental ingestion of recreation water containing fresh fecal contamination at 35 cfu/100 ml ENT for (a) seagull feces and (b) primary POTW effluent. Reprinted from ref 58, with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f10

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 11

Parametric sensitivity analysis of the predicted probability of gastrointestinal illness (median, 10th, and 90th percentiles) for adults attributable to from accidental ingestion of recreational water containing fresh seagull fecal contamination at 35 cfu/100 ml ENT to changes in the assumed fraction of total strains from seagulls that are human infectious. Reprinted from ref 58, with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f11

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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FIGURE 12

Comparison of median illness risk for adults when total ENT concentration (at 35 cfu/100 ml) is attributed to a mixture of primary POTW effluent (sewage) and seagull feces (gulls). Reprinted from ref 58, with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2.f12

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Examples of different exposure pathways (sources and barriers) for the same exposure scenario (adapted from (1)).

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Statistics for describing model variables for exposure assessment

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Examples of exposure magnitude and frequency assumptions for microbial risk assessment: combination of scientific data and reference values (from Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Table 3.3 Intended uses and associated exposure for recycled water [ ])

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Best and extreme estimates of model parameters applied in the exposure assessment of virus exposure via wastewater irrigated lettuce crops

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Step characteristic and factor sensitivity calculated for the lettuce crop exposure model

Citation: Petterson S, Ashbolt N. 2016. Exposure Assessment, p 3.5.2-1-3.5.2-18. In Yates M, Nakatsu C, Miller R, Pillai S (ed), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, Fourth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818821.ch3.5.2

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