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Chapter 15 : The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria

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The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Redox reactions are essential for life and play a role in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. In aerobic microorganisms, the oxidants and reactive species are equalized by the antioxidants in order to maintain redox balance ( ). is an obligate aerobe, although it has been demonstrated that it can survive for more than a decade under anaerobic conditions. In the macrophage and the lung of the host, is exposed to a range of complex environments which can profoundly influence the physiology, including the redox homeostasis, of the mycobacterium. Thus, it is likely that the mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in are vital in determining disease outcome. As in other bacteria, has developed pathways that monitor and respond to gaseous signals, such as NO, CO, and O, and fluctuations in the intra- and extracellular redox status ( ). In this article, we will explore the physiology and genetics of redox homeostasis in mycobacteria by considering the environments to which is exposed, the sensors whereby mycobacteria discern an imbalance in the redox balance both endogenously and in the extracellular environment, mechanisms utilized by mycobacteria to respond to redox stress in order to maintain the intracellular redox balance, and the means currently used to measure the redox state in mycobacteria.

Citation: Cumming B, Lamprecht D, Wells R, Saini V, Mazorodze J, Steyn A. 2014. The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, p 299-322. In Hatfull G, Jacobs W (ed), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013

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Figure 1

The RSH/RSSR reductase/NAD(P)H redox pathway for the reduction of cellular oxidants. The oxidation-reduction reaction of a typical flavoprotein disulfide reductase. The commonly found intracellular low-molecular-weight thiols and the organisms in which they are found. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013.f1

Citation: Cumming B, Lamprecht D, Wells R, Saini V, Mazorodze J, Steyn A. 2014. The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, p 299-322. In Hatfull G, Jacobs W (ed), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The biosynthesis pathway of mycothiol (MSH), with the related biosynthesis of I-1-P by tbINO. The enzyme associated with MshA2 activity is yet to be identified. The genomic organization of the MSH biosynthetic genes in H37Rv. See text for definition of abbreviations. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013.f2

Citation: Cumming B, Lamprecht D, Wells R, Saini V, Mazorodze J, Steyn A. 2014. The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, p 299-322. In Hatfull G, Jacobs W (ed), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013
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Figure 3

The intracellular functions of MSH: redox homeostasis, detoxification, source of carbon, and a cofactor in enzyme reactions. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013.f3

Citation: Cumming B, Lamprecht D, Wells R, Saini V, Mazorodze J, Steyn A. 2014. The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, p 299-322. In Hatfull G, Jacobs W (ed), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013
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Figure 4

Biosynthesis of ergothioneine as proposed by Seebeck ( ). Putative five-gene cluster in H37Rv encoding ERG biosynthetic enzymes. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013.f4

Citation: Cumming B, Lamprecht D, Wells R, Saini V, Mazorodze J, Steyn A. 2014. The Physiology and Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Mycobacteria, p 299-322. In Hatfull G, Jacobs W (ed), Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0019-2013
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