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Chapter 4 : Small RNAs Regulate Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gram-negative Bacteria

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Small RNAs Regulate Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gram-negative Bacteria, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

A diverse palette of novel small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) has been identified in bacteria in recent years, and many play important roles in regulating gene expression and adaptation to constantly changing physiological and metabolic needs. To date, more than a hundred sRNAs have been identified and characterized in gram-negative bacteria, with crucial and sometimes global regulatory functions that can easily rival protein regulators. The most studied and widely dispersed class of sRNAs in gram-negative bacteria act post-transcriptionally by base pairing to target mRNAs in order to effect positive or negative regulatory outcomes.

Citation: Bobrovskyy M, Vanderpool C, Richards G. 2015. Small RNAs Regulate Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gram-negative Bacteria, p 59-94. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0009-2014
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Figure 1

Simplified network of sRNAs regulating biofilm formation and motility in . The regulatory network shows a set of sRNAs (in bold) and relevant protein factors (grey boxes) controlling (blue circle), (red circle) and (violet circle) at the transcriptional (dashed lines), translational (solid lines) and protein (dotted lines) levels. Other factors known to regulate , , and were omitted for clarity. Arrows indicate activating interactions, and lines with blunt ends indicate inhibitory interactions.

Citation: Bobrovskyy M, Vanderpool C, Richards G. 2015. Small RNAs Regulate Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gram-negative Bacteria, p 59-94. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0009-2014
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Quorum sensing systems of . uses histidine kinases CqsS and LuxPQ to sense autoinducers (AIs) CAI-1 (violet triangle) and AI-2 (orange triangle) respectively. Receptors function as kinases at low cell density (LCD), when concentrations of CAI-1 and AI-2, which are produced by CqsA and LuxS, respectively, are low. This stimulates σ-dependent activation of gene expression through LuxU and LuxO phosphorylation cascade. The Qrr 1-4 sRNAs (red square), facilitated by Hfq, activate , which stimulates expression of , a known activator of the major virulence factors. Additionally Qrr 1-4 repress , which leads to polysaccharide production and biofilm formation. Qrr 1-4 also negatively regulate genes for biogenesis of type VI secretion system (T6SS). In contrast, at high cell density (HCD) receptors sense the presence of AIs and function as phosphatases that stimulate dephosphorylation of LuxU, resulting in cessation of expression. In the absence of Qrr sRNAs, expression increases, which leads to the inhibition of biofilm formation and shut down of virulence factor production, while stimulating T6SS biosynthesis. Lines with arrowheads indicate activating interactions, and lines with blunt ends indicate inhibitory interactions.

Citation: Bobrovskyy M, Vanderpool C, Richards G. 2015. Small RNAs Regulate Primary and Secondary Metabolism in Gram-negative Bacteria, p 59-94. In Conway T, Cohen P (ed), Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0009-2014
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