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Chapter 22 : Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other

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Abstract:

Antimicrobial resistance plasmids of staphylococci are circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that range in size from about 2 kilobase pairs (kbp) to larger than 100 kbp. Antimicrobial resistance plasmids share a number of basic properties with other plasmids: (i) they are present in variable copy numbers per bacterial cell, (ii) they replicate independently from the chromosomal DNA by using specific replication () genes, (iii) they are commonly distributed to daughter cells during bacterial cell division, and (iv) they can be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer mechanisms, such as conjugation, mobilization, or transduction ( ). Staphylococcal antimicrobial resistance plasmids may carry genes for mobilization or a gene complex for conjugative transfer ( ). Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance plasmids can undergo interplasmid recombination that may result in structurally diverse plasmids consisting of parts of both parental plasmids ( ). Such recombined plasmids may be better adapted to the conditions in the host bacterium and harbor additional genetic information. In contrast to genes that play essential roles in replication, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer, antimicrobial resistance genes are not essential for the survival of the bacteria under physiological conditions. However, they may be helpful for the bacteria to survive under specific conditions, e.g., in the presence of antimicrobial agents ( ).

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Figures

Image of Figure 1a
Figure 1a

Schematic presentation of the maps of small plasmids below 6 kbp in size carrying one or two antimicrobial resistance gene(s): pT181 (database accession no. J01764), pBC16 (U32369), pNE131 (M12730), pE194 (NC_005908), pSES22 (AM159501), pLNU1 (AM184099), pIP1714 (AF015628), pCPS32 (FN806791), pCPS49 (FN806792), pSA-7 (KF540226), pKKS49 (HE611647), pKKS966 (FN677368), pC221 (X02166), pC223 (AY355285), pC194 (V01277), pUB110 (M37273), pS194 (X06627), and pDJ91S (KC895984). The arrows indicate the positions of the genes and their directions of transcription. Resistance genes are marked in red; genes involved in plasmid recombination, mobilization, and relaxation (/) in yellow; and plasmid replication genes () in blue. Genes that exhibit other functions are shown in white. A distance scale in kbp is shown below each map. (This figure has been modified and expanded from Fig. 1 in reference [Schwarz S, Feßler AT, Hauschild T, Kehrenberg C, Kadlec K, 82–103, 2011] with permission.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f1a

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Image of Figure 1b
Figure 1b

Schematic presentation of the maps of small plasmids below 6 kbp in size carrying one or two antimicrobial resistance gene(s): pT181 (database accession no. J01764), pBC16 (U32369), pNE131 (M12730), pE194 (NC_005908), pSES22 (AM159501), pLNU1 (AM184099), pIP1714 (AF015628), pCPS32 (FN806791), pCPS49 (FN806792), pSA-7 (KF540226), pKKS49 (HE611647), pKKS966 (FN677368), pC221 (X02166), pC223 (AY355285), pC194 (V01277), pUB110 (M37273), pS194 (X06627), and pDJ91S (KC895984). The arrows indicate the positions of the genes and their directions of transcription. Resistance genes are marked in red; genes involved in plasmid recombination, mobilization, and relaxation (/) in yellow; and plasmid replication genes () in blue. Genes that exhibit other functions are shown in white. A distance scale in kbp is shown below each map. (This figure has been modified and expanded from Fig. 1 in reference [Schwarz S, Feßler AT, Hauschild T, Kehrenberg C, Kadlec K, 82–103, 2011] with permission.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f1b

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Figure 2

Comparative analysis of the genetic environment of the gene in plasmids and chromosomal DNA from staphylococci. The arrows indicate the positions of the genes and their directions of transcription. Resistance genes (including the gene) are marked in red, / genes in yellow, genes in blue, and transposase genes in green. Genes that exhibit other functions are shown in white. Insertion sequences are displayed as black boxes, with their transposase genes as white arrows. The regions of >95% homology are shaded in gray. Different gray shadings were used to better illustrate the homologous regions. Δ indicates a truncated gene. A 1-kbp distance scale is displayed in the upper center. (This figure has been modified from Fig. 1a in reference [Shen J, Wang Y, Schwarz S, 1697–1706, 2013] with permission.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f2

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Figure 3

Schematic presentation of the organization of the 40,971-bp plasmid pV7037 from porcine MRSA ST9 as an example of a multiresistance plasmid composed of different segments previously identified on other plasmids or transposons from Gram-positive bacteria. The arrows indicate the positions of the genes and their directions of transcription. Resistance genes are marked in red, / genes in yellow, genes in blue, and transposase genes in green. Genes that exhibit other functions or no known functions are shown in white. Insertion sequences are displayed as black boxes, with their transposase genes as white arrows. Plasmids, transposons, and chromosomal fragments that share similarity with plasmid pV7037 are displayed below the map of pV7037 with the homologous region(s) indicated by gray shading. A distance scale in bp is given below the maps. A dotted line connects the different parts of pV7037. The Δ symbol indicates a truncated gene. (This figure has been modified from Fig. 1 in reference [Wendlandt S, Li B, Ma Z, Schwarz S, 650–654, 2013], copyright 2013, with permission from Elsevier.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f3

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Schematic presentation of the maps of plasmids pKKS627 (FN390948), pIP1714 (AF015628), pBC16 (U32369), pUB110 (M37273), pSES22 (CAJ43792), and pIP823 (U40997) and comparison of the sequences at the boundaries of --homologous and -nonhomologous regions. A distance scale in kilobases is shown below each map. Resistance genes [(L), , (B), (C), , , (C), and ] are marked in red, / genes in yellow, and genes in blue. The areas of extended sequence similarity between the six plasmids are gray-shaded. The 4-bp direct repeats GGGC are shown as black boxes; the flanking regions are aligned, and the small arrows indicate the imperfect inverted repeats. In the imperfect inverted repeats, matching bases are displayed in bold type. (This figure was reproduced from reference [Schwarz S, Feßler AT, Hauschild T, Kehrenberg C, Kadlec K, 82–103, 2011] with permission.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f4

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Examples of IS- and IS-mediated recombination processes identified on plasmids pJ3358 (database accession no. U36910), pSK41 (NC_005024), pUR2940 (HF583292), pUSA03 (NC_007792), and pSTS20, pSTS21, and pSTS23 ( ). The arrows indicate the positions of the genes and their directions of transcription. Resistance genes are marked in red, / genes in yellow, genes in blue, and genes that exhibit other functions or no known functions in white. Insertion sequences are displayed as black boxes, with their transposase genes as white arrows. The 8-bp sequences at the boundaries of the IS-flanked segments are shown in boxes. (This figure has been modified and expanded from Fig. 5b in reference [Schwarz S, Feßler AT, Hauschild T, Kehrenberg C, Kadlec K, 82–103, 2011] with permission.) doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014.f5

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Overview of plasmid-borne antimicrobial resistance genes in staphylococci

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014
Generic image for table
Table 2

Examples of larger staphylococcal plasmids that carry several antimicrobial resistance genes occasionally together with metal or biocide/disinfectant resistance genes

Citation: Schwarz S, Shen J, Wendlandt S, Feßler A, Wang Y, Kadlec K, Wu C. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococci and Other , p 421-444. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0020-2014

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