Chapter 25 : Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818982/9781555818975_Chap25-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818982/9781555818975_Chap25-2.gif


Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was late in being discovered. Nalidixic acid, the first quinolone to be used clinically, was introduced in 1967 for urinary tract infections. Resistance was soon observed and could also be readily selected in the laboratory. It was produced by amino acid substitutions in the cellular targets of quinolone action: DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV ( ). Later, decreased quinolone accumulation due to pump activation and porin loss was added as an additional resistance mechanism. The search for transferable nalidixic acid resistance in over 500 Gram-negative strains in the 1970s was unrevealing ( ). In the 1980s fluoroquinolones became available that were more potent and broader in spectrum. Quinolone usage increased, with subsequent parallel increases in quinolone resistance ( ). In 1987 PMQR was reported to be present in a nalidixic acid-resistant isolate of from Bangladesh ( ), but this claim was later withdrawn ( ). True PMQR was reported in 1998 in a multiresistant urinary isolate at the University of Alabama that could transfer low-level resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and other quinolones to a variety of Gram-negative recipients ( ). The responsible gene was termed , later amended to as additional alleles were discovered. Investigation of a plasmid from Shanghai that provided more than the expected level of ciprofloxacin resistance led to the discovery in 2006 of a second mechanism for PMQR: modification of certain quinolones by a particular aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, AAC(6′)-Ib-cr ( ). A third mechanism for PMQR was added in 2007 with the discovery of plasmid-mediated quinolone efflux pumps QepA ( ) and OqxAB ( ). A multiplex PCR assay for eight PMQR genes (lacking only ) has recently been perfected ( ). In the past decade these genes have been found in bacterial isolates from around the world. They reduce the susceptibility of bacteria to quinolones, usually not to the level of nonsusceptibility but facilitating the selection of more quinolone-resistant mutants and treatment failure. PMQR has been frequently reviewed ( ).

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The rod-like structure of the QnrB1 dimer is shown above, with the sequence of the monomer below. The sequence is divided into four columns representing the four faces of the right-handed quadrilateral β-helix. Face names and color are shown at the top along with the naming convention for the five residues of the pentapeptide repeats. Loops A and B are indicated by one and two asterisks, respectively, with their sequences indicated below and the loops shown as black traces on the diagram. The N-terminal α-helix is colored pink. The molecular 2-fold symmetry is indicated with a black diamond. Type II turn-containing faces are shown as spheres, and type IV-containing faces as strands ( ). Adapted from the ( ), copyright 2011, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f1

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

QnrB1 protection of DNA gyrase from ciprofloxacin inhibition of supercoiling. Reaction mixtures of 30 µl were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Reaction mixtures contained 0.2 µg relaxed pBR322 DNA (lanes 1 to 14), 6.7 nM gyrase (lanes 2 to 14), 2 µg/ml ciprofloxacin (lanes 3 to 14), and QnrB-His6 fusion protein at 25 µM (lane 4), 5 µM (lane 5), 2.5 µM (lane 6), 0.5 µM (lane 7), 50 nM (lane 8), 5 nM (lane 9), 0.5 nM (lane 10), 50 pM (lane 11), 5 pM (lane 12), or 0.5 pM (lane 13). Reprinted from reference . doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f2

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3a
Figure 3a

Genetic environment of alleles. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f3a

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3b
Figure 3b

Genetic environment of alleles. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f3b

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3c
Figure 3c

Genetic environment of alleles. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f3c

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Survival at increasing fluoroquinolone concentrations for J53 and J53 pMG252. A large inoculum (10 colony forming units) and appropriate dilutions were applied to Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing the indicated concentration of ciprofloxacin, and surviving colonies were counted after incubation for 72 h at 37°C. doi:10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.f4

Citation: Jacoby G, Strahilevitz J, Hooper D. 2015. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, p 475-503. In Tolmasky M, Alonso J (ed), Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Gellert M,, Mizuuchi K,, O’Dea MH,, Itoh T,, Tomizawa JI . 1977. Nalidixic acid resistance: a second genetic character involved in DNA gyrase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74 : 47724776.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Yoshida H,, Kojima T,, Yamagishi J,, Nakamura S . 1988. Quinolone-resistant mutations of the gyrA gene of Escherichia coli . Mol Gen Genet 211 : 17.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Hooper DC, . 2003. Mechanisms of quinolone resistance, p 4167. In Hooper DC,, Rubinstein E (ed), Quinolone Antimicrobial Agents, 3rd ed, ASM Press, Washington, DC.
4. Burman LG . 1977. Apparent absence of transferable resistance to nalidixic acid in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 3 : 509516.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Neuhauser MM,, Weinstein RA,, Rydman R,, Danziger LH,, Karam G,, Quinn JP . 2003. Antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in US intensive care units: implications for fluoroquinolone use. JAMA 289 : 885888.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Linder JA,, Huang ES,, Steinman MA,, Gonzales R,, Stafford RS . 2005. Fluoroquinolone prescribing in the United States: 1995 to 2002. Am J Med 118 : 259268.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Munshi MH,, Sack DA,, Haider K,, Ahmed ZU,, Rahaman MM,, Morshed MG . 1987. Plasmid-mediated resistance to nalidixic acid in Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Lancet 2 : 419421.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
8. Ashraf MM,, Ahmed ZU,, Sack DA . 1991. Unusual association of a plasmid with nalidixic acid resistance in an epidemic strain of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 from Asia. Can J Microbiol 37 : 5963.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Martínez-Martínez L,, Pascual A,, Jacoby GA . 1998. Quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid. Lancet 351 : 797799.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Robicsek A,, Strahilevitz J,, Jacoby GA,, Macielag M,, Abbanat D,, Park CH,, Bush K,, Hooper DC . 2006. Fluoroquinolone-modifying enzyme: a new adaptation of a common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase. Nat Med 12 : 8388.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Yamane K,, Wachino J,, Suzuki S,, Kimura K,, Shibata N,, Kato H,, Shibayama K,, Konda T,, Arakawa Y . 2007. New plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone efflux pump, QepA, found in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 33543360.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
12. Périchon B,, Courvalin P,, Galimand M . 2007. Transferable resistance to aminoglycosides by methylation of G1405 in 16S rRNA and to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones by QepA-mediated efflux in Escherichia coli . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 24642469.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Hansen LH,, Jensen LB,, Sorensen HI,, Sorensen SJ . 2007. Substrate specificity of the OqxAB multidrug resistance pump in Escherichia coli and selected enteric bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 60 : 145147.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Ciesielczuk H,, Hornsey M,, Choi V,, Woodford N,, Wareham DW . 2013. Development and evaluation of a multiplex PCR for eight plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants. J Med Microbiol 62 : 18231827.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
15. Guan X,, Xue X,, Liu Y,, Wang J,, Wang Y,, Wang J,, Wang K,, Jiang H,, Zhang L,, Yang B,, Wang N,, Pan L . 2013. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance: current knowledge and future perspectives. J Int Med Res 41 : 2030.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
16. Ruiz J,, Pons MJ,, Gomes C . 2012. Transferable mechanisms of quinolone resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents 40 : 196203.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Poirel L,, Cattoir V,, Nordmann P . 2012. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance; interactions between human, animal, and environmental ecologies. Front Microbiol 3 : 24. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Cano ME,, Velasco C,, Martinez-Martinez L,, Pascual A . 2011. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance: an update. J Infect Chemother 17 : 149182.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Hernandez A,, Sanchez MB,, Martinez JL . 2011. Quinolone resistance: much more than predicted. Front Microbiol 2 : 22. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
20. Strahilevitz J,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC,, Robicsek A . 2009. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance: a multifaceted threat. Clin Microbiol Rev 22 : 664689.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
21. Tran JH,, Jacoby GA . 2002. Mechanism of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 : 56385642.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
22. Rodríguez-Martínez JM,, Pascual A,, García I,, Martínez-Martínez L . 2003. Detection of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnr among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing AmpC-type β-lactamase. J Antimicrob Chemother 52 : 703706.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
23. Wang M,, Sahm DF,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2004. Emerging plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance associated with the qnr gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 : 12951299.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
24. Wang M,, Tran JH,, Jacoby GA,, Zhang Y,, Wang F,, Hooper DC . 2003. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47 : 22422248.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
25. Cheung TK,, Chu YW,, Chu MY,, Ma CH,, Yung RW,, Kam KM . 2005. Plasmid-mediated resistance to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in Hong Kong. J Antimicrob Chemother 56 : 586589.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
26. Hata M,, Suzuki M,, Matsumoto M,, Takahashi M,, Sato K,, Ibe S,, Sakae K . 2005. Cloning of a novel gene for quinolone resistance from a transferable plasmid in Shigella flexneri 2b. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 801803.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
27. Jacoby GA,, Walsh KE,, Mills DM,, Walker VJ,, Oh H,, Robicsek A,, Hooper DC . 2006. qnrB, another plasmid-mediated gene for quinolone resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 11781182.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
28. Wang M,, Guo Q,, Xu X,, Wang X,, Ye X,, Wu S,, Hooper DC,, Wang M . 2009. New plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrC, found in a clinical isolate of Proteus mirabilis . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 18921897.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
29. Cavaco LM,, Hasman H,, Xia S,, Aarestrup FM . 2009. qnrD, a novel gene conferring transferable quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky and Bovismorbificans strains of human origin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 603608.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
30. Xia R,, Guo X,, Zhang Y,, Xu H . 2010. qnrVC-like gene located in a novel complex class 1 integron harboring the ISCR1 element in an Aeromonas punctata strain from an aquatic environment in Shandong Province, China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 : 34713474.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
31. Ming L . 2013. Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Vibrio parahaemolyticus . GenBank KC540630. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
32. Singh R,, Rajpara N,, Tak J,, Patel A,, Mohanty P,, Vinothkumar K,, Chowdhury G,, Ramamurthy T,, Ghosh A,, Bhardwaj AK . 2012. Clinical isolates of Vibrio fluvialis from Kolkata, India, obtained during 2006: plasmids, the qnr gene and a mutation in gyrase A as mechanisms of multidrug resistance. J Med Microbiol 61 : 369374.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
33. Fonseca EL,, Vicente AC . 2013. Epidemiology of qnrVC alleles and emergence out of the Vibrionaceae family. J Med Microbiol 62 : 16281630.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
34. Kim HB,, Wang M,, Ahmed S,, Park CH,, LaRocque RC,, Faruque AS,, Salam MA,, Khan WA,, Qadri F,, Calderwood SB,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2010. Transferable quinolone resistance in Vibrio cholerae . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 : 799803.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
35. Jacoby G,, Cattoir V,, Hooper D,, Martínez-Martínez L,, Nordmann P,, Pascual A,, Poirel L,, Wang M . 2008. qnr gene nomenclature. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 22972299.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
36. Sánchez MB,, Hernández A,, Rodríguez-Martínez JM,, Martínez-Martínez L,, Martínez JL . 2008. Predictive analysis of transmissible quinolone resistance indicates Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a potential source of a novel family of Qnr determinants. BMC Microbiol 8 : 148161.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
37. Boulund F,, Johnning A,, Pereira MB,, Larsson DG,, Kristiansson E . 2012. A novel method to discover fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance (qnr) genes in fragmented nucleotide sequences. BMC Genomics 13 : 695. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2013. Phylogenetic analysis of chromosomally determined Qnr and related proteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 19301934.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
39. Vetting MW,, Hegde SS,, Fajardo JE,, Fiser A,, Roderick SL,, Takiff HE,, Blanchard JS . 2006. Pentapeptide repeat proteins. Biochemistry 45 : 110.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
40. Montero C,, Mateu G,, Rodriguez R,, Takiff H . 2001. Intrinsic resistance of Mycobacterium smegmatis to fluoroquinolones may be influenced by new pentapeptide protein MfpA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45 : 33873392.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
41. Hegde SS,, Vetting MW,, Roderick SL,, Mitchenall LA,, Maxwell A,, Takiff HE,, Blanchard JS . 2005. A fluoroquinolone resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that mimics DNA. Science 308 : 14801483.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
42. Hegde SS,, Vetting MW,, Mitchenall LA,, Maxwell A,, Blanchard JS . 2011. Structural and biochemical analysis of the pentapeptide repeat protein EfsQnr, a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 110117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
43. Xiong X,, Bromley EH,, Oelschlaeger P,, Woolfson DN,, Spencer J . 2011. Structural insights into quinolone antibiotic resistance mediated by pentapeptide repeat proteins: conserved surface loops direct the activity of a Qnr protein from a gram-negative bacterium. Nucleic Acids Res 39 : 39173927.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
44. Vetting MW,, Hegde SS,, Wang M,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC,, Blanchard JS . 2011. Structure of QnrB1, a plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance factor. J Biol Chem 286 : 2526525273.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
45. Jacoby GA,, Corcoran MA,, Mills DM,, Griffin CM,, Hooper DC . 2013. Mutational analysis of quinolone resistance protein QnrB1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 57335736.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
46. Kampranis SC,, Bates AD,, Maxwell A . 1999. A model for the mechanism of strand passage by DNA gyrase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96 : 84148419.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
47. Drlica K,, Malik M,, Kerns RJ,, Zhao X . 2008. Quinolone-mediated bacterial death. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 385392.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
48. Tran JH,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2005. Interaction of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance protein Qnr with Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 118125.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
49. Mérens A,, Matrat S,, Aubry A,, Lascols C,, Jarlier V,, Soussy CJ,, Cavallo JD,, Cambau E . 2009. The pentapeptide repeat proteins MfpAMt and QnrB4 exhibit opposite effects on DNA gyrase catalytic reactions and on the ternary gyrase-DNA-quinolone complex. J Bacteriol 191 : 15871594.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
50. Tavio MM,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2014. QnrS1 structure-activity relationships. J Antimicrob Chemother 69 : 21022109. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
51. Tran JH,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2005. Interaction of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance protein QnrA with Escherichia coli topoisomerase IV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 30503052.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
52. Arsène S,, Leclercq R . 2007. Role of a qnr-like gene in the intrinsic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 32543258.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
53. Rodríguez-Martínez JM,, Velasco C,, Briales A,, García I,, Conejo MC,, Pascual A . 2008. Qnr-like pentapeptide repeat proteins in Gram-positive bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 61 : 12401243.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
54. Shimizu K,, Kikuchi K,, Sasaki T,, Takahashi N,, Ohtsuka M,, Ono Y,, Hiramatsu K . 2008. Smqnr, a new chromosome-carried quinolone resistance gene in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 38233825.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
55. Sánchez MB,, Martínez JL . 2010. SmQnr contributes to intrinsic resistance to quinolones in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 : 580581.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
56. Gordon NC,, Wareham DW . 2010. Novel variants of the Smqnr family of quinolone resistance genes in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . J Antimicrob Chemother 65 : 483489.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
57. Zhang R,, Sun Q,, Hu YJ,, Yu H,, Li Y,, Shen Q,, Li GX,, Cao JM,, Yang W,, Wang Q,, Zhou HW,, Hu YY,, Chen GX . 2012. Detection of the Smqnr quinolone protection gene and its prevalence in clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in China. J Med Microbiol 61 : 535539.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
58. Poirel L,, Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Mammeri H,, Liard A,, Nordmann P . 2005. Origin of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 35233525.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
59. Poirel L,, Liard A,, Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Nordmann P . 2005. Vibrionaceae as a possible source of Qnr-like quinolone resistance determinants. J Antimicrob Chemother 56 : 11181121.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
60. Cattoir V,, Poirel L,, Mazel D,, Soussy CJ,, Nordmann P . 2007. Vibrio splendidus as the source of plasmid-mediated QnrS-like quinolone resistance determinants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 26502651.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
61. Jacoby GA,, Griffin CM,, Hooper DC . 2011. Citrobacter spp. as a source of qnrB alleles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 49794984.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
62. Zhang S,, Sun J,, Liao XP,, Hu QJ,, Liu BT,, Fang LX,, Deng H,, Ma J,, Xiao X,, Zhu HQ,, Liu YH . 2013. Prevalence and plasmid characterization of the qnrD determinant in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from animals, retail meat products, and humans. Microb Drug Resist 19 : 331335.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
63. Guillard T,, Cambau E,, Neuwirth C,, Nenninger T,, Mbadi A,, Brasme L,, Vernet-Garnier V,, Bajolet O,, de Champs C . 2012. Description of a 2,683-base-pair plasmid containing qnrD in two Providencia rettgeri isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 565568.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
64. Guillard T,, Grillon A,, de Champs C,, Cartier C,, Madoux J,, Lozniewski A,, Berçot B,, Riahi J,, Vernet-Garnier V,, Cambau E . 2014. Mobile insertion cassetts as a source of qnrD mobilization onto small non-transmissible plasmids in Proteeae . PLoS One 9(2): e87801. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087801. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
65. Saga T,, Sabtcheva S,, Mitsutake K,, Ishii Y,, Tateda K,, Yamaguchi K,, Kaku M . 2013. Characterization of qnrB-like genes in Citrobacter species of the American Type Culture Collection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 28632866.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
66. Toleman MA,, Bennett PM,, Walsh TR . 2006. ISCR elements: novel gene-capturing systems of the 21st century? Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 : 296316.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
67. Park YJ,, Yu JK,, Kim SY,, Lee S,, Jeong SH . 2010. Prevalence and characteristics of qnr determinants and aac(6′)-Ib-cr among ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother 65 : 20412043.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
68. Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Poirel L,, Canton R,, Nordmann P . 2006. Common region CR1 for expression of antibiotic resistance genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 25442546.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
69. Robicsek A,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2006. The worldwide emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Lancet Infect Dis 6 : 629640.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
70. Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Velasco C,, Garcia I,, Cano ME,, Martinez-Martinez L,, Pascual A . 2007. Characterisation of integrons containing the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrA1 in Klebsiella pneumoniae . Int J Antimicrob Agents 29 : 705709.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
71. Garza-Ramos U,, Barrios H,, Hernandez-Vargas MJ,, Rojas-Moreno T,, Reyna-Flores F,, Tinoco P,, Othon V,, Poirel L,, Nordmann P,, Cattoir V,, Ruiz-Palacios G,, Fernandez JL,, Santamaria RI,, Bustos P,, Castro N,, Silva-Sanchez J . 2012. Transfer of quinolone resistance gene qnrA1 to Escherichia coli through a 50 kb conjugative plasmid resulting from the splitting of a 300 kb plasmid. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 16271634.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
72. Teo JW,, Ng KY,, Lin RT . 2009. Detection and genetic characterisation of qnrB in hospital isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Singapore. Int J Antimicrob Agents 33 : 177180.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
73. Andres P,, Lucero C,, Soler-Bistue A,, Guerriero L,, Albornoz E,, Tran T,, Zorreguieta A,, PMQR Group, Galas M,, Corso A,, Tolmasky ME,, Petroni A . 2013. Differential distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility from Argentina. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 24672675.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
74. Espedido BA,, Partridge SR,, Iredell JR . 2008. bla IMP-4 in different genetic contexts in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Australia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 29842987.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
75. Ma J,, Zeng Z,, Chen Z,, Xu X,, Wang X,, Deng Y,, Lu D,, Huang L,, Zhang Y,, Liu J,, Wang M . 2009. High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr, aac(6′)-Ib-cr and qepA among ceftiofur-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates from companion and food-producing animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 519524.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
76. Chen YT,, Liao TL,, Liu YM,, Lauderdale TL,, Yan JJ,, Tsai SF . 2009. Mobilization of qnrB2 and ISCR1 in plasmids. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 12351237.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
77. Garnier F,, Raked N,, Gassama A,, Denis F,, Ploy MC . 2006. Genetic environment of quinolone resistance gene qnrB2 in a complex sul1-type integron in the newly described Salmonella enterica serovar Keurmassar. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 32003202.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
78. Cattoir V,, Nordmann P,, Silva-Sanchez J,, Espinal P,, Poirel L . 2008. ISEcp1-mediated transposition of qnrB-like gene in Escherichia coli . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 29292932.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
79. Dionisi AM,, Lucarelli C,, Owczarek S,, Luzzi I,, Villa L . 2009. Characterization of the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene qnrB19 in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 40194021.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
80. Hordijk J,, Bosman AB,, van Essen-Zandbergen A,, Veldman K,, Dierikx C,, Wagenaar JA,, Mevius D . 2011. qnrB19 gene bracketed by IS26 on a 40-kilobase IncR plasmid from an Escherichia coli isolate from a veal calf. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 453454.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
81. Schink AK,, Kadlec K,, Schwarz S . 2012. Detection of qnr genes among Escherichia coli isolates of animal origin and complete sequence of the conjugative qnrB19-carrying plasmid pQNR2078. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 10991102.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
82. Tran T,, Andres P,, Petroni A,, Soler-Bistue A,, Albornoz E,, Zorreguieta A,, Reyes-Lamothe R,, Sherratt DJ,, Corso A,, Tolmasky ME . 2012. Small plasmids harboring qnrB19: a model for plasmid evolution mediated by site-specific recombination at oriT and Xer sites. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 18211827.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
83. Rice LB,, Carias LL,, Hutton RA,, Rudin SD,, Endimiani A,, Bonomo RA . 2008. The KQ element, a complex genetic region conferring transferable resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in Klebsiella pneumoniae . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 34273429.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
84. Kehrenberg C,, Friederichs S,, de Jong A,, Michael GB,, Schwarz S . 2006. Identification of the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene qnrS in Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis. J Antimicrob Chemother 58 : 1822.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
85. Kehrenberg C,, Hopkins KL,, Threlfall EJ,, Schwarz S . 2007. Complete nucleotide sequence of a small qnrS1-carrying plasmid from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium DT193. J Antimicrob Chemother 60 : 903905.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
86. Dolejska M,, Villa L,, Hasman H,, Hansen L,, Carattoli A . 2013. Characterization of IncN plasmids carrying bla CTX-M-1 and qnr genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella from animals, the environment and humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 333339.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
87. Chen YT,, Shu HY,, Li LH,, Liao TL,, Wu KM,, Shiau YR,, Yan JJ,, Su IJ,, Tsai SF,, Lauderdale TL . 2006. Complete nucleotide sequence of pK245, a 98-kilobase plasmid conferring quinolone resistance and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase activity in a clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 38613866.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
88. Hu FP,, Xu XG,, Zhu DM,, Wang MG . 2008. Coexistence of qnrB4 and qnrS1 in a clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae . Acta Pharmacol Sin 29 : 320324.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
89. Poirel L,, Cattoir V,, Soares A,, Soussy CJ,, Nordmann P . 2007. Novel Ambler class A β-lactamase LAP-1 and its association with the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant QnrS1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 631637.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
90. Picão RC,, Poirel L,, Demarta A,, Silva CS,, Corvaglia AR,, Petrini O,, Nordmann P . 2008. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Aeromonas allosaccharophila recovered from a Swiss lake. J Antimicrob Chemother 62 : 948950.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
91. Mazzariol A,, Kocsis B,, Koncan R,, Kocsis E,, Lanzafame P,, Cornaglia G . 2012. Description and plasmid characterization of qnrD determinants in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii . Clin Microbiol Infect 18 : E46E48.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
92. Fonseca EL,, Dos Santos Freitas F,, Vieira VV,, Vicente AC . 2008. New qnr gene cassettes associated with superintegron repeats in Vibrio cholerae O1. Emerg Infect Dis 14 : 11291131.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
93. Wu K,, Wang F,, Sun J,, Wang Q,, Chen Q,, Yu S,, Rui Y . 2012. Class 1 integron gene cassettes in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China. Int J Antimicrob Agents 40 : 264267.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
94. Dubois V,, Thabet L,, Laffargue A,, Andre C,, Coulange-Mayonnave L,, Quentin C . 2013. Overlapping outbreaks of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Tunisian burn unit: emergence of new integrons encompassing bla V IM-2 . GenBank accession number JX861889. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/.
95. Kumar P,, Thomas S . 2011. Presence of qnrVC3 gene cassette in SXT and class 1 integrons of Vibrio cholerae . Int J Antimicrob Agents 37 : 280281.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
96. Pai H,, Seo MR,, Choi TY . 2007. Association of QnrB determinants and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases or plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 366368.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
97. Castanheira M,, Mendes RE,, Rhomberg PR,, Jones RN . 2008. Rapid emergence of bla CTX-M among Enterobacteriaceae in U.S. medical centers: molecular evaluation from the MYSTIC Program (2007). Microb Drug Resist 14 : 211216.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
98. Jeong HS,, Bae IK,, Shin JH,, Jung HJ,, Kim SH,, Lee JY,, Oh SH,, Kim HR,, Chang CL,, Kho WG,, Lee JN . 2011. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and its association with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and AmpC beta-lactamase in Enterobacteriaceae . Korean J Lab Med 31 : 257264.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
99. Luo Y,, Yang J,, Zhang Y,, Ye L,, Wang L,, Guo L . 2011. Prevalence of β-lactamases and 16S rRNA methylase genes amongst clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37 : 352355.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
100. Yang HF,, Cheng J,, Hu LF,, Ye Y,, Li JB . 2012. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase- and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens in China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 45294531.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
101. Liu BT,, Liao XP,, Yue L,, Chen XY,, Li L,, Yang SS,, Sun J,, Zhang S,, Liao SD,, Liu YH . 2013. Prevalence of β-lactamase and 16S rRNA methylase genes among clinical Escherichia coli isolates carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes from animals. Microb Drug Resist 19 : 237245.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
102. Soge OO,, Adeniyi BA,, Roberts MC . 2006. New antibiotic resistance genes associated with CTX-M plasmids from uropathogenic Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae . J Antimicrob Chemother 58 : 10481053.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
103. Cattoir V,, Weill FX,, Poirel L,, Fabre L,, Soussy CJ,, Nordmann P . 2007. Prevalence of qnr genes in Salmonella in France. J Antimicrob Chemother 59 : 751754.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
104. Jiang Y,, Zhou Z,, Qian Y,, Wei Z,, Yu Y,, Hu S,, Li L . 2008. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants qnr and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 61 : 10031006.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
105. Guessennd N,, Bremont S,, Gbonon V,, Kacou-Ndouba A,, Ekaza E,, Lambert T,, Dosso M,, Courvalin P . 2008. Résistance aux quinolones de type qnr chez les entérobactéries productrices de bêta-lactamases à spectre élargi à Abidjan en Côte d’Ivoire. Pathol Biol (Paris) 56 : 439446.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
106. Lavigne JP,, Marchandin H,, Delmas J,, Bouziges N,, Lecaillon E,, Cavalie L,, Jean-Pierre H,, Bonnet R,, Sotto A . 2006. qnrA in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolates from France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 42244228.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
107. Lavilla S,, Gonzalez-Lopez JJ,, Sabate M,, Garcia-Fernandez A,, Larrosa MN,, Bartolome RM,, Carattoli A,, Prats G . 2008. Prevalence of qnr genes among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacterial isolates in Barcelona, Spain. J Antimicrob Chemother 61 : 291295.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
108. Yang H,, Chen H,, Yang Q,, Chen M,, Wang H . 2008. High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnr and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from nine teaching hospitals in China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 42684273.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
109. Iabadene H,, Messai Y,, Ammari H,, Ramdani-Bouguessa N,, Lounes S,, Bakour R,, Arlet G . 2008. Dissemination of ESBL and Qnr determinants in Enterobacter cloacae in Algeria. J Antimicrob Chemother 62 : 133136.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
110. Perilli M,, Forcella C,, Celenza G,, Frascaria P,, Segatore B,, Pellegrini C,, Amicosante G . 2009. Evidence for qnrB1 and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in CTX-M-15-producing uropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae in an Italian teaching hospital. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 64 : 9093.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
111. Miró E,, Segura C,, Navarro F,, Sorlí L,, Coll P,, Horcajada JP,, Álvarez-Lerma F,, Salvadó M . 2010. Spread of plasmids containing the bla VIM-1 and bla CTX-M genes and the qnr determinant in Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 65 : 661665.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
112. Albrechtova K,, Dolejska M,, Cizek A,, Tausova D,, Klimes J,, Bebora L,, Literak I . 2012. Dogs of nomadic pastoralists in northern Kenya are reservoirs of plasmid-mediated cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, including pandemic clone B2-O25-ST131. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 40134017.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
113. Shibl AM,, Al-Agamy MH,, Khubnani H,, Senok AC,, Tawfik AF,, Livermore DM . 2012. High prevalence of acquired quinolone-resistance genes among Enterobacteriaceae from Saudi Arabia with CTX-M-15 β-lactamase. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 73 : 350353.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
114. Li DX,, Zhang SM,, Hu GZ,, Wang Y,, Liu HB,, Wu CM,, Shang YH,, Chen YX,, Du XD . 2012. Tn3-associated rmtB together with qnrS1, aac(6′)-Ib-cr and bla CTX-M-15 are co-located on an F49:A-:B- plasmid in an Escherichia coli ST10 strain in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 236238.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
115. Wu JJ,, Ko WC,, Tsai SH,, Yan JJ . 2007. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants QnrA, QnrB, and QnrS among clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae in a Taiwanese hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 12231227.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
116. Chmelnitsky I,, Navon-Venezia S,, Strahilevitz J,, Carmeli Y . 2008. Plasmid-mediated qnrB2 and carbapenemase gene bla KPC-2 carried on the same plasmid in carbapenem-resistant ciprofloxacin-susceptible Enterobacter cloacae isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 29622965.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
117. Endimiani A,, Carias LL,, Hujer AM,, Bethel CR,, Hujer KM,, Perez F,, Hutton RA,, Fox WR,, Hall GS,, Jacobs MR,, Paterson DL,, Rice LB,, Jenkins SG,, Tenover FC,, Bonomo RA . 2008. Presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates possessing bla KPC in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 26802682.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
118. Mendes RE,, Bell JM,, Turnidge JD,, Yang Q,, Yu Y,, Sun Z,, Jones RN . 2008. Carbapenem-resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae in China and detection of a conjugative plasmid (bla KPC-2 plus qnrB4) and a bla IMP-4 gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 798799.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
119. Poirel L,, Leviandier C,, Nordmann P . 2006. Prevalence and genetic analysis of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants QnrA and QnrS in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a French university hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 39923997.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
120. García-Fernández A,, Fortini D,, Veldman K,, Mevius D,, Carattoli A . 2009. Characterization of plasmids harbouring qnrS1, qnrB2 and qnrB19 genes in Salmonella . J Antimicrob Chemother 63 : 274281.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
121. Potron A,, Poirel L,, Bernabeu S,, Monnet X,, Richard C,, Nordmann P . 2009. Nosocomial spread of ESBL-positive Enterobacter cloacae co-expressing plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance Qnr determinants in one hospital in France. J Antimicrob Chemother 64 : 653654.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
122. Cambau E,, Lascols C,, Sougakoff W,, Bebear C,, Bonnet R,, Cavallo JD,, Gutmann L,, Ploy MC,, Jarlier V,, Soussy CJ,, Robert J . 2006. Occurrence of qnrA-positive clinical isolates in French teaching hospitals during 2002–2005. Clin Microbiol Infect 12 : 10131020.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
123. Corkill JE,, Anson JJ,, Hart CA . 2005. High prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrA in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from blood cultures in Liverpool, UK. J Antimicrob Chemother 56 : 11151117.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
124. Rodriguez-Martinez JM,, Poirel L,, Pascual A,, Nordmann P . 2006. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Australia. Microb Drug Resist 12 : 99102.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
125. Szabó D,, Kocsis B,, Rókusz L,, Szentandrássy J,, Katona K,, Kristóf K,, Nagy K . 2008. First detection of plasmid-mediated, quinolone resistance determinants qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6′)-Ib-cr in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Budapest, Hungary. J Antimicrob Chemother 62 : 630632.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
126. Poirel L,, Villa L,, Bertini A,, Pitout JD,, Nordmann P,, Carattoli A . 2007. Expanded-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 13 : 803805.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
127. Zhao X,, Xu X,, Zhu D,, Ye X,, Wang M . 2010. Decreased quinolone susceptibility in high percentage of Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolates caused only by Qnr determinants. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67 : 110113.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
128. Mammeri H,, Van De Loo M,, Poirel L,, Martinez-Martinez L,, Nordmann P . 2005. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in Europe. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 7176.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
129. Nazic H,, Poirel L,, Nordmann P . 2005. Further identification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant in Enterobacteriaceae in Turkey. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 21462147.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
130. Poirel L,, Van De Loo M,, Mammeri H,, Nordmann P . 2005. Association of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance with extended-spectrum β-lactamase VEB-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 30913094.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
131. Aschbacher R,, Doumith M,, Livermore DM,, Larcher C,, Woodford N . 2008. Linkage of acquired quinolone resistance (qnrS1) and metallo-beta-lactamase (bla VIM-1) genes in multiple species of Enterobacteriaceae from Bolzano, Italy. J Antimicrob Chemother 61 : 515523.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
132. Wu JJ,, Ko WC,, Wu HM,, Yan JJ . 2008. Prevalence of Qnr determinants among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Taiwanese hospital, 1999–2005. J Antimicrob Chemother 61 : 12341239.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
133. Lee CH,, Liu JW,, Li CC,, Chien CC,, Tang YF,, Su LH . 2011. Spread of ISCR1 elements containing bla DHA-1 and multiple antimicrobial resistance genes leading to increase of flomoxef resistance in extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 40584063.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
134. Verdet C,, Benzerara Y,, Gautier V,, Adam O,, Ould-Hocine Z,, Arlet G . 2006. Emergence of DHA-1-producing Klebsiella spp. in the Parisian region: genetic organization of the ampC and ampR genes originating from Morganella morganii . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 : 607617.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
135. Hidalgo L,, Gutierrez B,, Ovejero CM,, Carrilero L,, Matrat S,, Saba CK,, Santos-Lopez A,, Thomas-Lopez D,, Hoefer A,, Suarez M,, Santurde G,, Martin-Espada C,, Gonzalez-Zorn B . 2013. Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 11 from companion animals bearing ArmA methyltransferase, DHA-1 β-lactamase, and QnrB4. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 45324534.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
136. Sanchez-Cespedes J,, Marti S,, Soto SM,, Alba V,, Melción C,, Almela M,, Marco F,, Vila J . 2009. Two chromosomally located qnrB variants, qnrB6 and the new qnrB16, in Citrobacter spp. isolates causing bacteraemia. Clin Microbiol Infect 15 : 11321138.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
137. Kehrenberg C,, Friederichs S,, de Jong A,, Schwarz S . 2008. Novel variant of the qnrB gene, qnrB12, in Citrobacter werkmanii . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 12061207.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
138. Ogbolu DO,, Daini OA,, Ogunledun A,, Alli AO,, Webber MA . 2011. High levels of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Gram-negative pathogens from Nigeria. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37 : 6266.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
139. Wang F,, Wu K,, Sun J,, Wang Q,, Chen Q,, Yu S,, Rui Y . 2012. Novel ISCR1-linked resistance genes found in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China. Int J Antimicrob Agents 40 : 404408.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
140. Touati A,, Brasme L,, Benallaoua S,, Gharout A,, Madoux J,, De Champs C . 2008. First report of qnrB-producing Enterobacter cloacae and qnrA-producing Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from Algerian hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60 : 287290.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
141. Guo L,, Zhang J,, Xu C,, Zhao Y,, Ren T,, Zhang B,, Fan H,, Liao M . 2011. Molecular characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance in Haemophilus parasuis isolated from pigs in South China. J Antimicrob Chemother 66 : 539542.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
142. Jacoby GA,, Gacharna N,, Black TA,, Miller GH,, Hooper DC . 2009. Temporal appearance of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 16651666.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
143. Strahilevitz J,, Engelstein D,, Adler A,, Temper V,, Moses AE,, Block C,, Robicsek A . 2007. Changes in qnr prevalence and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp. collected from 1990 to 2005. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 30013003.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
144. Xu X,, Wu S,, Ye X,, Liu Y,, Shi W,, Zhang Y,, Wang M . 2007. Prevalence and expression of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrA1 . Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 : 41054110.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
145. Kim HB,, Park CH,, Kim CJ,, Kim EC,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2009. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants over a 9-year period. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 639645.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
146. Kim NH,, Choi EH,, Sung JY,, Oh CE,, Kim HB,, Kim EC,, Lee HJ . 2013. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and ciprofloxacin resistance in pediatric bloodstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae over a 9-year period. Jpn J Infect Dis 66 : 151154.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
147. Robicsek A,, Sahm DF,, Strahilevitz J,, Jacoby GA,, Hooper DC . 2005. Broader distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 30013003.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
148. Literak I,, Micudova M,, Tausova D,, Cizek A,, Dolejska M,, Papousek I,, Prochazka J,, Vojtech J,, Borleis F,, Guardone L,, Guenther S,, Hordowski J,, Lejas C,, Meissner W,, Marcos BF,, Tucakov M . 2012. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout Europe. Microb Drug Resist 18 : 567573.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
149. Tausova D,, Dolejska M,, Cizek A,, Hanusova L,, Hrusakova J,, Svoboda O,, Camlik G,, Literak I . 2012. Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in great cormorants and mallards in Central Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 11031107.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
150. Shaheen BW,, Nayak R,, Foley SL,, Boothe DM . 2013. Chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms among broad-spectrum- cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates recovered from companion animals in the USA. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 10191024.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
151. Kirchner M,, Wearing H,, Teale C . 2011. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene detected in Escherichia coli from cattle. Vet Microbiol 148 : 434435.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
152. Madec JY,, Poirel L,, Saras E,, Gourguechon A,, Girlich D,, Nordmann P,, Haenni M . 2012. Non-ST131 Escherichia coli from cattle harbouring human-like bla CTX-M-15-carrying plasmids. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 578581.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
153. Wu CM,, Wang Y,, Cao XY,, Lin JC,, Qin SS,, Mi TJ,, Huang SY,, Shen JZ . 2009. Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from chickens in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 63 : 408411.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
154. Cerquetti M,, Garcia-Fernandez A,, Giufre M,, Fortini D,, Accogli M,, Graziani C,, Luzzi I,, Caprioli A,, Carattoli A . 2009. First report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrS1 in an Escherichia coli strain of animal origin in Italy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 31123114.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
155. Veldman K,, Cavaco LM,, Mevius D,, Battisti A,, Franco A,, Botteldoorn N,, Bruneau M,, Perrin-Guyomard A,, Cerny T,, De Frutos Escobar C,, Guerra B,, Schroeter A,, Gutierrez M,, Hopkins K,, Myllyniemi AL,, Sunde M,, Wasyl D,, Aarestrup FM . 2011. International collaborative study on the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli isolated from animals, humans, food and the environment in 13 European countries. J Antimicrob Chemother 66 : 12781286.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
156. Chen X,, Zhang W,, Pan W,, Yin J,, Pan Z,, Gao S,, Jiao X . 2012. Prevalence of qnr, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB in Escherichia coli isolates from humans, animals, and the environment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 34233427.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
157. Du XD,, Li DX,, Hu GZ,, Wang Y,, Shang YH,, Wu CM,, Liu HB,, Li XS . 2012. Tn1548-associated armA is co-located with qnrB2, aac(6′)-Ib-cr and bla CTX-M-3 on an IncFII plasmid in a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B strain isolated from chickens in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 246248.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
158. Literak I,, Reitschmied T,, Bujnakova D,, Dolejska M,, Cizek A,, Bardon J,, Pokludova L,, Alexa P,, Halova D,, Jamborova I . 2013. Broilers as a source of quinolone-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in the Czech Republic. Microb Drug Resist 19 : 5763.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
159. Kim JH,, Cho JK,, Kim KS . 2013. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella isolated from poultry in Korea. Avian Pathol 42 : 221229.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
160. Liu BT,, Yang QE,, Li L,, Sun J,, Liao XP,, Fang LX,, Yang SS,, Deng H,, Liu YH . 2013. Dissemination and characterization of plasmids carrying oqxAB-bla CTX-M genes in Escherichia coli isolates from food-producing animals. PLoS One 8 : e73947. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073947. [CrossRef]
161. Pomba C,, da Fonseca JD,, Baptista BC,, Correia JD,, Martinez-Martinez L . 2009. Detection of the pandemic O25-ST131 human virulent Escherichia coli CTX-M-15-producing clone harboring the qnrB2 and aac(6′)-Ib-cr genes in a dog. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 327328.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
162. Yue L,, Jiang HX,, Liao XP,, Liu JH,, Li SJ,, Chen XY,, Chen CX,, Lu DH,, Liu YH . 2008. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnr genes in poultry and swine clinical isolates of Escherichia coli . Vet Microbiol 132 : 414420.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
163. Verner-Jeffreys DW,, Welch TJ,, Schwarz T,, Pond MJ,, Woodward MJ,, Haig SJ,, Rimmer GS,, Roberts E,, Morrison V,, Baker-Austin C . 2009. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water. PLoS One 4 : e8388. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008388. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
164. Jiang HX,, Tang D,, Liu YH,, Zhang XH,, Zeng ZL,, Xu L,, Hawkey PM . 2012. Prevalence and characteristics of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from farmed fish in China. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 23502353.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
165. Han JE,, Kim JH,, Choresca CH Jr,, Shin SP,, Jun JW,, Chai JY,, Park SC . 2012. First description of ColE-type plasmid in Aeromonas spp. carrying quinolone resistance (qnrS2) gene. Lett Appl Microbiol 55 : 290294.