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Chapter 4 : Additional Techniques for Stool Examination

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Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

  • Culture of larval-stage nematodes
    • Harada-Mori filter paper strip culture
    • Filter paper/slant culture technique (petri dish)
    • Charcoal culture
    • Baermann technique
      • Modification of the Baermann method
    • Agar plate culture for
  • Egg studies
    • Estimation of worm burdens and Kato-Katz thick film
      • Direct-smear method of Beaver
      • Dilution egg count
      • Modified Stoll dilution method
      • Kato-Katz thick smear
    • Hatching of schistosome eggs
  • Search for tapeworm scolex
  • India ink injection procedure for tapeworm proglottids
  • Qualitative test for fecal fat
  • Quantitation of reducing substances (Clinitest)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Figures

Image of Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1

Culture methods for the recovery of larval-stage nematodes: Harada-Mori tube method and petri dish culture method. Viable larvae are present if the specimen contains or other nematodes. Wear gloves when handling the culture devices. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.2
Figure 4.2

(Upper) Baermann apparatus. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.) (Lower) Baermann apparatus set up in the laboratory. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3

Baermann apparatus modification. (Drawing by Sharon Belkin; adapted from .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.4
Figure 4.4

Agar plate culture method for . (Upper) Agar plate showing bacterial growth after being distributed over the plate by the movement of the larval worms. (Lower) More random pattern of bacterial growth from the inoculation of bacteria over the agar from the movement of the larval worms (image courtesy of Audrey N. Schuetz, Weill Cornell Medical College). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.5
Figure 4.5

Agar culture method for . (1) Agar plates are prepared. (2) Agar is dried for 4 to 5 days on the bench top. (3) Plates are stored in plastic bags. (4) Fresh stool is submitted to the laboratory. (5) Approximately 2 g of stool is placed onto an agar plate. (6) The plate is sealed with tape. (7) The culture plate is incubated at 26 to 33°C for 2 days. (8) The plate is examined microscopically for the presence of tracks (bacteria carried over agar by migrating larvae). (9) 10% formalin is placed onto agar through a hole made in the plastic with hot forceps. (10) Material from the agar plate is centrifuged. (11) The material is examined as a wet preparation for rhabditiform or filariform larvae (high dry power; magnification, ×400). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.6
Figure 4.6

larvae. (Upper) Giemsa-stained larvae in a specimen of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (courtesy of Marc Long). (Middle) Gram-stained larva in thoracic fluid. (Lower) Gram-stained larva in a respiratory specimen (sputum). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.7
Figure 4.7

egg showing flame cells. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura; modified from E. C. Faust et al., , 8th ed., Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1970.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.8
Figure 4.8

(Upper) Sidearm hatching flask used to recover miracidia from viable schistosome eggs (illustration by Nobuko Kitamura). (Lower) Miracidium larva released from egg during hatching procedure (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.9
Figure 4.9

gravid proglottids after India ink injection of the uterine branches. (Left) fresh gravid proglottid prior to India ink injection. (Middle) gravid proglottid. (Right) gravid proglottid. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.10
Figure 4.10

Fat droplets seen in the fecal fat test. The color can range from red to orange (pale to more intense), and the droplets can vary in size. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Image of Figure 4.11
Figure 4.11

Color range for stool Clinitest reactions: blue (negative) to orange (positive). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch4.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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References

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Tables

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REVIEW Culture of Larval-Stage Nematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
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Untitled

REVIEW Egg Studies

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4
Generic image for table
Untitled

REVIEW Search for Tapeworm Scolex

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Additional Techniques for Stool Examination, p 77-97. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch4

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