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Chapter 9 : Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods

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Abstract:

  • Fixation of parasite specimens and arthropods
    • Protozoa
    • Solutions to induce relaxation in adult helminths
    • Nematodes
    • Trematodes
    • Cestodes
    • Helminth eggs and larvae
    • Arthropods
  • Mounting and staining of parasite specimens for examination
    • Nematodes
    • Trematodes
    • Cestodes
  • Mounting of arthropods for examination
    • Mites
    • Fleas and lice
    • Ticks
    • Miscellaneous arthropods

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Figures

Image of Figure 9.1
Figure 9.1

(Left) cyst (unstained). (Right) cyst (unstained). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.2
Figure 9.2

Adult nematode (male worm). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.3
Figure 9.3

Adult nematode (note the “whiplike” appearance; this is a much smaller adult worm than ). The small end attaches to the intestinal wall, while the large end is free in the bowel lumen. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.4
Figure 9.4

fertilized eggs. Note the fully developed larva within each egg; these eggs were viable when photographed. In some cases, the moving larva can be seen, even in formalin-preserved specimens. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.5
Figure 9.5

Adult trematodes. (Upper) Fresh trematode (unfixed, unstained). (Middle) Unstained flukes. (Bottom) Stained fluke (note the morphologic details that can be seen after staining). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.6
Figure 9.6

proglottids. (Upper) Note that morphologic details cannot be seen in this preserved but unstained preparation. (Lower) After India ink injection, the uterine branches are now visible and can be counted. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.7
Figure 9.7

(Left) spp. egg (note the striated shell and hooklets seen within the embryo (oncosphere). (Right) egg (note the six-hooked embryo and the polar filaments that are found between the oncosphere and the shell). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.8
Figure 9.8

Semipermanent mounts of small nematodes. (Left) Small nematode from soil sample. (Right) Male (pinworm) nematode. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.9
Figure 9.9

Stained trematodes. (Upper) sp. (Lower) sp. Note that the morphologic details are clearly visible after staining. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.10
Figure 9.10

gravid proglottids. (Upper) stained with carmine stain. (Lower) after India ink injection of the uterine branches. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.11
Figure 9.11

itch mites in wet mounts. (Upper) Adult mite. (Lower) Skin scraping containing adult mite (black arrow), eggs (red arrow), and mite feces (green arrow). These specimens could be seen using the high dry objective (magnification, ×400). (Lower image courtesy of National Institutes of Health, http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/2471.jpg). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.12
Figure 9.12

(Left) Body louse, (Right) Flea, (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.13
Figure 9.13

Ticks. (Left) Example of a hard tick, sp. (Right) Example of a soft tick, sp. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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Image of Figure 9.14
Figure 9.14

Example of large hard-body insects, which are triatomid bugs. These large insects can be pinned, labeled, and stored in boxes containing naphthalene flakes or paradichlorobenzene. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch9.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Fixation and Special Preparation of Fecal Parasite Specimens and Arthropods, p 183-194. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch9
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References

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