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Chapter 14 : Tissue Nematodes

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Abstract:

    • spp.
    • and (visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans)
    • and (cutaneous larva migrans)
    • Human eosinophilic enteritis
    • () (cerebral angiostrongyliasis)
    • () (abdominal angiostrongyliasis)
    • , , , and
    • , , , , , and (larval nematodes acquired from saltwater fish)
    • spp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Life cycle of spp. A number of infected meat sources other than pork are relevant for the various species of doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

spp., encysted larva in muscle. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

(Upper) , encysted larva in muscle. (Middle, left) , encysted larva in muscle; adjacent muscle has been replaced by fibrous tissue and is infiltrated with chronic inflammatory cells (×85) (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). (Middle, right) Coiled larva of in a teased muscle preparation (wet mount, ×193) (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). (Lower) larvae, wet mounts from tissue digestion (may be recovered in stool within first 24 h of infected meat ingestion). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

(Upper) Trichinosis, periorbital swelling, eye irritation (public domain, courtesy of Thomas F. Sellers, Emory University and the CDC Public Health Image Library). (Lower) Examples of fingernail splinter hemorrhages in trichinosis (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Unencapsulated (image courtesy of Beck R et al, 304–307, 2009). Note the absence of the collagen capsule seen with other species of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Algorithm 14.1
Algorithm 14.1

Diagnosis of trichinosis. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.Alg14.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Life cycle of Accidental infection in the human leads to visceral larva migrans (VLM), ocular larva migrans (OLM), and/or neural larva migrans (NLM), which are very serious diseases that can cause death. Infections are seen primarily in very young children. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

(Left) eggs; note the larvae within the egg shells (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). (Right) Adult worms from raccoon intestine (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.8
Figure 14.8

, CNS atrophy, sclerosis, and larval granuloma in the brain of a 2-year-old boy who died following 14 months of CNS problems. (Lower) Note the prominent alae (circle), excretory columns (box), and multinuclear intestinal cells (arrow). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of K. R. Kazacos.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.9
Figure 14.9

Neuroimaging of human brain with NLM. (A) In acute NLM, an axial-flair magnetic resonance (MR) image (at the level of the posterior fossa) demonstrates an abnormal hyperintense signal of cerebellar white matter; (B) an axial T2-weighted MR image (at the level of the lateral ventricles) demonstrates an abnormal patchy hyperintense signal of periventricular white matter and basal ganglia; (C) an axial T2-weighted MR image (at the level of the lateral ventricles) of a patient with subacute/chronic NLM demonstrates residual abnormal hyperintense signal of the periventricular white matter, loss of white matter volume, and dilation of ventricles and sulci, consistent with generalized cerebral atrophy. (Images courtesy of Gavin PJ et al, 703–718, 2005.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.10
Figure 14.10

(Upper left) egg; note the pits in the egg shell (somewhat similar to eggs); (right) adult worms removed from a human lesion. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) (Lower left) Ulcerating lesions behind the ear in a case of lagochilascariasis (courtesy of Neto FXP et al, , suppl 73, 2007); (right) toxocariasis with eye involvement (courtesy of Yoshimi R et al, , suppl 72, 2006). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.11
Figure 14.11

Life cycle of spp., the cause of visceral larva migrans (VLM) and ocular larva migrans (OLM). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.12
Figure 14.12

. (Upper left) Immature egg; (right) mature egg containing larva. (Lower) Adult worms. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.13
Figure 14.13

(Upper) Ocular larva migrans (toxocariasis); note the white, elevated granuloma on the retina. (Courtesy of Sowka JW et al, Jobson Medical Information LLC, New York, NY, 2005.) (Lower) larva recovered in liver (visceral larva migrans). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Algorithm 14.2
Algorithm 14.2

Diagnosis of toxocariasis. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.Alg14.2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.14
Figure 14.14

Life cycle of spp., the cause of cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.15
Figure 14.15

Linear tracks caused by migration of spp. [cutaneous larva migrans (CLM)]. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.16
Figure 14.16

, blister on leg (contains female worm); note removal of the adult worm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.17
Figure 14.17

Life cycle of , the cause of guinea worm disease. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.18
Figure 14.18

, progression from blister through worm removal. (Upper two images courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library; lower two images from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman, photograph courtesy of J. Donges.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.19
Figure 14.19

, abscess caused by developing worm. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.20
Figure 14.20

Life cycle of () spp. [see ( ) in figure]. Humans present with encephalitis when worms die in the brain tissue. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.21
Figure 14.21

() . Snail vector (common garden snail). (Courtesy of Majik Phil blog, www.majikphil.blogspot.com.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.22
Figure 14.22

() . (Upper) Longitudinal parasite within the meninges (courtesy of Alejandro Ruiz Mendoza, VI Congreso Vitual Hispanoamericano de Anatomía Patológica, 2004). (Lower) Larva penetrating the arachnoid (courtesy of picasaweb.google.com). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.23
Figure 14.23

() adult male worm in the eye. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman; original image by John Cross.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.24
Figure 14.24

() Female worm in appendix (hematoxylin and eosin stain). IN, multinucleate intestine; E, eggs; UT, uterus. (Courtesy of Regions Hospital, St. Paul, MN, and the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.25
Figure 14.25

Life cycle of doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f25

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.26
Figure 14.26

, adult worm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin, adapted from ; originally adapted from Miyazaki I, 123–140, 1954.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f26

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.27
Figure 14.27

. (Left to right) Third-stage larva, head; scanning electron micrograph; whole third-stage larva (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f27

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.28
Figure 14.28

Life cycle of , , , , and spp. (larval nematodes acquired from saltwater fish). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f28

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.29
Figure 14.29

(Upper left) in cod; (right) in cod (courtesy of Stig Mellergaard). (Lower left) in fish flesh; (right) larval nematodes in fish viscera. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of L. A. Jensen.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f29

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.30
Figure 14.30

Scanning electron micrograph of an larva penetrating human stomach tissue . Note the tunnel created in the mucosa and the burrow in the submucosa. (Reprinted with permission from Sakanari JA, McKerrow JH, 625–630, 1990.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f30

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.31
Figure 14.31

: removal of the worm from the duodenum using biopsy forceps. (Courtesy of Hwang D et al, 73–75, 2012; open access article http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f31

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.32
Figure 14.32

eggs in liver. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) For information on intestinal capillariasis with , see chapter 13. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f32

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Image of Figure 14.33
Figure 14.33

spp. The worms are 1 to 1.5 cm long and are threadlike. They may be found in the conjunctival sac or lachrymal glands or migrating over the cornea. (Upper, courtesy of Trang tin dˉiên tù' Viên Sõt rét - K Sinh trùng - Côn trùng Quy Nho'n Giãy phép thie˜t lâp sõ 53/GP - BC do Bô va˘n hóa thông tin cãp ngày 24/4/2005. Lower, courtesy of State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch14.f33

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 14.1

taxonomy and distribution

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.2

species and genotypes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.3

Tissue nematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.4

: life cycle stages and clinical conditions

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.5

Trichinosis: incubation period, larval numbers, and degree of illness

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.6

Outbreaks due to consumption of spp. in horse meat

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.7

Case definition for human trichinosis according to the European Center for Disease Control

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.8

Algorithm for diagnosing acute trichinosis in humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.9

Differential diagnosis of trichinosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.10

Trichinosis: prevention and control measures

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.11

Baylisascariasis: clinical presentations and diagnosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.12

Differential diagnosis of infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.13

Differential diagnosis for human eosinophilic gastroenteritis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14
Generic image for table
TABLE 14.14

Comparative features of and infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Nematodes, p 336-376. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch14

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