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Chapter 16 : Intestinal Cestodes

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Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Algorithm 16.1
Algorithm 16.1

, , and . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.Alg16.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.1
Figure 16.1

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.2
Figure 16.2

Scolex of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.3
Figure 16.3

Gravid proglottids. ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) ; ( ) . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.4
Figure 16.4

Gravid proglottids of (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.5
Figure 16.5

eggs. (Left) Note the small knob at the abopercular end (end opposite the operculum); also note that the operculum does not fit into “shoulders” like the eggs but presents a smooth outline on the egg shell. (Right) Note the open opercula; this can be accomplished by tapping on the coverslip (wet mount) to get opercula to pop open. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.6
Figure 16.6

Copepod. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.7
Figure 16.7

. Encysted pleurocercoids in cherry salmon fillet. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of T. Oshima, Yokohama City University.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.8
Figure 16.8

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.9
Figure 16.9

Cysticerci in muscle. (Upper) Pork; (lower) beef. (Courtesy of the Iowa State University Department of Veterinary Pathology, Center for Food Security and Public Health, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, and Plum Island Animal Disease Center.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.10
Figure 16.10

Scolex of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.11
Figure 16.11

Gravid proglottids of . (Upper, left) India ink injection of gravid proglottid; (right) India ink injection of gravid proglottid with carmine overlay. (Lower) Oil Red O stain of gravid proglottid. (Upper right and lower courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, Mae Melvin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.12
Figure 16.12

eggs. (Top and middle) Note the striated shell and the presence of the six-hooked oncosphere within the thick egg shell. The hooks may not be visible in every egg, particularly in specimens that have been stored for long periods in preservatives; however, in clinical specimens submitted to the laboratory in fixatives for timely examination, the hooklets are generally visible within the egg shell. Without special staining, the eggs of spp. cannot be identified to the species level (, , ). (Bottom) Eggs of sp. in a gravid proglottid, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Note the characteristic striations, typical for the taeniids. Not visible in these images are the hooks commonly seen in cestode eggs. Hooks do not stain with H&E but are refractile. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.13
Figure 16.13

eggs. (Left) ; (right) . Ziehl Neelsen staining can occasionally distinguish fully mature from eggs, in cases where the cover is entirely magenta () or entirely blue/purple (). Staining can be mixed or equivocal. While this distinction provides a species diagnosis in 35% of cases, it is certainly not absolute and not very practical. Also, use of this technique assumes that eggs are fully mature (which is not possible to determine in a proglottid) and is relatively subjective since color differences may be subtle. (Courtesy of Jimenez JA et al, 1077–1081, 2010.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.14
Figure 16.14

(A) Cysticercus with head invaginated into the bladder (courtesy of Christina Thoisen, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark). (B) Scanning electron micrograph of scolex from cysticercus (photograph courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.15
Figure 16.15

(Upper) Gross specimen of brain containing many cysticerci. (Lower) Single cysticercus in the brain. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.16
Figure 16.16

(Left) Single cysticercus from brain (arrow). (Right) Note the suckers (arrows) and hooklets (circle). (Courtesy of Luciano S. Queiroz, Dept. of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas [UNICAMP], Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.17
Figure 16.17

Cysticercus in the eye. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of R. Delgado y Garnica, Hospital Infantil de Tacubaya, Arq. Carlos Laxo y Gaviota, Mexico D.F.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.18
Figure 16.18

(Upper) Racemose form of cysticercus with several interconnected bladders of various sizes (gross specimen). [Courtesy of Velho V et al, ( ), 2009, https://ispub.com/IJNS/7/1/9907.] (Lower) Section of proliferating bladder wall of racemose cysticercus, demonstrating multiple layers. (Courtesy of Luciano S. Queiroz, Dept of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas [UNICAMP], Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil; gradanat@fcm.unicamp.br.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.19
Figure 16.19

Calcified cysticerci in tissue. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.20
Figure 16.20

Neurocysticercosis. Scanning images of cysticerci in brain. (Upper, adapted from the Public Health Image Library, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; lower, from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.21
Figure 16.21

Tapeworm hooklets. (Left) Cysticercosis, hooklet seen on FNAC (Giemsa stain) (courtesy of Sawhney M, Agarwal S, ). (Right) hooklets (Ryan's modified trichrome stain) (courtesy of Clavel A et al, 1561–1563, 1999). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.22
Figure 16.22

Life cycle of . The same life cycle is applicable to (except that the eggs are contained primarily in the liver of the pig). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.23
Figure 16.23

Scolex of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.24
Figure 16.24

Gravid proglottids of . (Upper) India ink injection. (Lower) India ink injection dehydrated in xylenes containing some Wheatley's trichrome stain (provides background color). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.25
Figure 16.25

(). Cross section of cysticercus (photograph courtesy of Ping-Chin Fan, with permission). Note the suckers (arrows). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f25

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.26
Figure 16.26

(). (Left) Scolex from adult worm (unarmed, no hooks). (Right) Gravid proglottid. (Photographs courtesy of Ping-Chin Fan, with permission.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f26

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.27
Figure 16.27

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f27

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.28
Figure 16.28

. (Upper) Diagram of both a cysticercoid and adult worm in the small intestine. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) (Lower) Cysticercoids of in the villi of the small intestine. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f28

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.29
Figure 16.29

(Upper) (common pest found in stored grain products/flour), intermediate host of spp. (about 4 mm long) (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library). (Lower) Grain beetles on wheat (courtesy of U.S. Department of Agriculture). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f29

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.30
Figure 16.30

. (Left) Scolex; note the suckers and hooks on the rostellum. (Right) Proglottids; note they are very wide and short. The adult worms are rarely seen in human fecal specimens. (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f30

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.31
Figure 16.31

(Top, left) Egg of ; note the thin egg shell, the six-hooked oncosphere, and the polar filaments that lie between the oncosphere and egg shell (arrows). (Top, right) Egg of ; note the thin egg shell, the six-hooked oncosphere, and the lack of polar filaments. (Middle) eggs; note the polar filaments (arrows). (Bottom) Eggs of stained with Wheatley's trichrome stain; note the distorted appearance. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f31

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.32
Figure 16.32

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f32

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.33
Figure 16.33

. (Left) Scolex; note the suckers and no hooks on the rostellum. (Right) Proglottids; note they are very wide and short. Also note the presence of the three oval testes (arrows). The adult worms are rarely seen in human fecal specimens. (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f33

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.34
Figure 16.34

eggs. Note the absence of polar filaments like those seen in eggs. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f34

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.35
Figure 16.35

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f35

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.36
Figure 16.36

Proglottids of . (Top) Fresh proglottid that may resemble a cucumber seed (note the shape and light color); when the proglottids dry, they may resemble rice grains. (Middle) Fresh, unstained proglottid. (Bottom) Stained proglottid. (Photographs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Program: Laboratory Identification of Parasites of Public Health Concern.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f36

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Image of Figure 16.37
Figure 16.37

(Upper, left) Egg packet in a fecal wet mount; (right) egg packet in a wet mount with iodine. (Lower) Fleas that carry (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch16.f37

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 16.1

Cestode parasites (intestinal)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16
Generic image for table
TABLE 16.2

Classification of neurocysticercosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Cestodes, p 418-446. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch16

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