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Chapter 17 : Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms

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Abstract:

    • (cystic hydatid disease)
    • (alveolar hydatid disease)
    • and (polycystic hydatid disease)
    • () spp. (, ) (coenurosis)
    • and spp. (sparganosis)
    • NOTE (cysticercosis) is discussed in chapter 16.

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.1
Figure 17.1

Life cycle of (cystic echinococcosis). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.2
Figure 17.2

Adult worm of . (A) Diagram. (B) Whole mount (note that only three proglottids are present in the adult worm). (Whole mount courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.3
Figure 17.3

. (Top) Daughter cyst within the main cyst wall (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). (Middle) Hydatid sand (immature protoscolices). (Bottom) Individual hooklets: (left) unstained, interference microscopy (courtesy of the Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney); (right) hydatid hooklets revealed by Ryan modified blue trichrome stain (courtesy of Clavel A et al, 1561–1563, 1999); see also chapter 6. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.4
Figure 17.4

hydatid cyst. (A) Diagram of unilocular cyst (limiting membrane). (B) Diagram of single immature worm. (C) Diagram of hooklets. (D) Diagram of laminated layers, daughter cysts, and protoscolices. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) GL, germinal layer; LL, laminated layer; FL, fibrous layer. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.5
Figure 17.5

Hydatid cysts in liver. (Upper) This patient had three cysts (marked by arrows) in the right lobe. Two were completely calcified, and the large one in the background was partially calcified. (From Zaman V, , Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1979.) (Lower) Hydatid cyst in the liver of an 11-year-old girl (courtesy of Yuksel M et al, 2007, www.openi.nlm.nih.gov). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.6
Figure 17.6

Hydatid cyst in the lung. This patient had a single large cyst in the left lung. There was collapse and consolidation in part of the left lung as a result of pressure on the bronchus. Partial pneumonectomy was required to remove the cyst. (From Zaman V, , Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1979.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.7
Figure 17.7

calcified liver cyst. The cyst is visible at the upper edge of the right pelvis; the dense pearlike structure at left is the gallbladder. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.8
Figure 17.8

. Major components of the immune response to hydatid cyst fluid in the host: -derived immune modulators and the main cytokines that regulate this response. Parasite-derived molecules as AgB, EgTeg, and EgEF-1β/δ could elicit a predominant Th2 activation, whereas EgTPx and other HCF components can elicit a concomitant Th1/Th2 cell activation. (Courtesy of Siracusano A et al, 639362, 2012.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Algorithm 17.1

Echinococcosis. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.Alg17.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.9
Figure 17.9

Life cycle of (alveolar hydatid disease). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.10
Figure 17.10

. (A) Entire cyst. (B) Multicystic nature of the parasite in an experimental infection in a muskrat. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of R. L. Rausche.) (C) Diagram of a histologic section. The left side represents the normal animal intermediate host in which protoscolices are found; the right side demonstrates the cyst structure within the human accidental intermediate host in which the protoscolices may not develop. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) (D) Histologic section. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.11
Figure 17.11

(alveolar hydatid cyst). (Upper) H&E. Note the numerous irregular vesicles (quite different from a single limiting capsule cyst—cystic hydatid with . ) (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). (Lower) Periodic acid-Schiff staining of the laminated layer (courtesy of Bernadette Kantelip, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/214349-workup#showall). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.12
Figure 17.12

Polycystic hydatid disease. (Upper) From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. (Lower) Polycystic echinococcosis in the human liver: fatal case, from a resident of Panama (courtesy of Octavio Sousa, Centro de Investigación y Diagnóstico de Enfermedades Parasitarias, Facultad de Medicina, República de Panamá, from D'Alessandro A, Rausch RL, 380–401, 2008). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.13
Figure 17.13

Large rostellar hooks from protoscolices of , , and (left to right, all at the same magnification). (From D'Alessandro A, Rausch RL, 380–401, 2008.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.14
Figure 17.14

Life cycle of () spp. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.15
Figure 17.15

Representative cysts. (A) Cysticercus; (B) coenurus; (C) hydatid; (D) multilocular hydatid. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.16
Figure 17.16

Coenurosis. (Upper) Diagram of cyst. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) (Lower) Actual cysts. (Left, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph. Right, from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman; photograph courtesy J. Harper III and L. C. Marcus.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.17
Figure 17.17

Coenurosis: cross section of cyst. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.18
Figure 17.18

Life cycle of and spp. (sparganosis). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Image of Figure 17.19
Figure 17.19

Sparganosis. (Top) Surgical removal of a nodular mass and appearance of an inert, whitish, flat structure (courtesy , http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652011000100009). (Middle, left) Sparganum (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library); (right) scolex of sparganus (courtesy of Tai Soon Yong, Web Atlas of Medical Parasitology). (Bottom) Muscle. Within the loose fibroadipose tissue adjacent to skeletal muscle, there are multiple profiles of an immature tapeworm (pleurocercoid), composed of loose mesenchyme bearing abundant oval-shaped calcified bodies (calcarious corpuscles). (Courtesy of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch17.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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Tables

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TABLE 17.1

Tissue cestodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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TABLE 17.2

strains

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
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TABLE 17.3

Examples of hydatid disease, complications, and/or outcomes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 17.4

Infection phases: alveolar echinococcosis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Tissue Cestodes: Larval Forms, p 447-473. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch17

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