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Chapter 18 : Intestinal Trematodes

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Abstract:

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Figures

Image of Algorithm 18.1
Algorithm 18.1

Trematode infection. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.Alg18.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.1
Figure 18.1

Life cycle of intestinal trematodes. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.2
Figure 18.2

Diagram of a general intestinal/liver trematode. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.3
Figure 18.3

egg. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.4
Figure 18.4

Intestinal trematode eggs. (A) ; (B) ; (C) ; (D) . Note that the eggs in panels C and D are shown at a higher magnification to demonstrate very minor differences; the operculum of is less pronounced than that of (see chapter 19), and the operculum outline of is the least obvious of the three small trematode eggs that are often confused (, , and ). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.5
Figure 18.5

Outline of the sizes of adult intestinal trematodes. (A) ; (B) ; (C) ; (D) ; (E) . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.6
Figure 18.6

adult worms. (Left) Unpreserved adult worm: fleshy, pale, elongate-ovoid with no cephalic cone as seen in ; the adult worms measure 20 to 75 mm in length by 8 to 20 mm in width, and 0.5 to 3 mm in thickness. (Right) Stained and flattened adult worm: from anterior to posterior characterized by a large ventral sucker, coiled uterus, branched ovary, and two branched testes filling most of the posterior section of the worm; the lateral fields are filled with vitellaria. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.7
Figure 18.7

, water chestnut. (Upper) Plant structure (courtesy of Mass Spectrum Botanicals). (Lower) Chestnut (courtesy of Joscha Feth at the German Wikipedia project—released into the public domain). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.8
Figure 18.8

adult worms. (Upper) Stained adult worm characterized by having a circumoral disk with a crown of spines surrounding the small oral sucker. (Lower) Enlarged image of the crown of spines (surrounding the oral sucker) and the large ventral sucker. The living worm is reddish gray and measures 2.5 to 6.5 mm in length by 1 to 1.35 mm in width. (Courtesy of www.k-state.edu.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.9
Figure 18.9

adult worm, stained with carmine. These worms tend to have a broadly rounded posterior end, measure approximately 1 to 1.7 mm in length by 0.3 to 0.4 mm in width, and tend to be gray. In this figure, the following structures are labeled: oral sucker (OS), pharynx (PH), intestine (IN), ventral sucker or acetabulum (AC), and eggs within the uterus (EG). (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.10
Figure 18.10

adult worm, stained with carmine. These worms are quite small, like , and measure 1 to 2.5 mm by 0.4 to 0.75 mm. The ventral sucker is deflected to the right of the midline and is visible in this image. In this figure, the following structures are labeled: oral sucker (OS), pharynx (PH), intestine (IN), genitoacetabulum (GA), ovary (OV), the large, paired testes (TE), and eggs within the uterus (EG). (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library; image courtesy of Conchology, Inc., Mactan Island, Philippines.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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Image of Figure 18.11
Figure 18.11

adult worms. Note the pyriform shape and the deep concavity on the ventral surface, which contains a large sucker. The adult worms measure 8 to 14 mm in length by 4 to 5 mm in width and are usually bright pink. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin. Adapted from references 3 and 8.) (Right image courtesy of http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/dept/parasite/trematodes/GhAd.htm.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch18.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819002.garcia.ch18
1. World Health Organization. 1995. Control of foodborne trematode infections. WHO Tech Rep Ser 849.
2. Chai J-Y,. 2009. Echinostomes in humans, p 147183. In Fried B,, Toledo R (ed), The Biology of Echinostomes. From the Molecule to the Community. Springer, New York, NY.
3. Beaver PC,, Jung RC,, Cupp EW. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
4. Mas-Coma S,, Bargues MD,, Valero MA,. 2007. Plant-borne trematode zoonoses: fascioliasis and fasciolopsiasis, p 293334. In Murrell KD,, Fried B (ed), World Class Parasites, vol 11. Food-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses. Fish and Plant-Borne Parasites. Springer, New York, NY.
5. Sen-Hai Y,, Mott KE. 1994. Epidemiology and morbidity of food-borne intestinal trematode infections. Trop Dis Bull 91:R126R150.
6. Cringoli G. 2006. FLOTAC, a novel apparatus for a multivalent faecal egg count technique. Parasitologia 48:381384.
7. Abramowicz M (ed). 2004. Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther 46:112.
8. Bunnag D,, Cross JH,, Bunnag T,. 2000. Intestinal fluke infections, p 832840. In Strickland GT (ed), Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8th ed. The WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
9. Graczyk TK,, Gilman RH,, Fried B. 2001. Fasciolopsiasis: is it a controllable food-borne disease? Parasitol Res 87:8083.
10. Keiser J,, Utzinger J. 2009. Food-borne trematodiases. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:466483.
11. Wells WH,, Randall BH. 1956. New hosts for trematodes of the genus Heterophyes in Egypt. J Parasitol 42:287292.
12. von Siebold T. 1852. Beitrage zur Helminthographia Humana. Z Wiss Zool 4:5376.
13. Deschiens R,, Collomb H,, Demarchi J. 1958. Distomatose cerebrale a Heterophyes heterophyes, p. 265. In Abstracts of the 6th International Congress on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Lisbon, Portugal.
14. Kean BH, Breslau RC. 1964. Parasites of the Human Heart, p 95–103. Grune & Stratton, New York, NY.
15. Cort WH,, Yokogawa S. 1921. A new human trematode from Japan. J Parasitol 8:6669.
16. Khalil M. 1933. The life history of the human trematode parasite, Heterophyes heterophyes. Lancet ii:537.
17. Witenberg G. 1929. Studies on the trematode—family Heterophyidae. Ann Trop Med 23:131239.
18. Keiser J,, Utzinger J. 2005. Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerg Infect Dis 11:15071514.
19. Phan VT,, Ersboll AK,, Nguyen KV,, Madsen H,, Dalsgaard A. 2010. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e742.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 18.1

Characteristics of intestinal trematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 18.2

Other echinostome infections reported from humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 18.3

Other heterophyid infections reported in humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Trematodes, p 474-486. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch18

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