1887

Chapter 19 : Liver and Lung Trematodes

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Liver and Lung Trematodes, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819002/9781555819002_ch19-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819002/9781555819002_ch19-2.gif

Abstract:

  • Liver Flukes
  • Less Common Liver Flukes
    • , , and
  • Lung Flukes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 19.1
Figure 19.1

Life cycle of the liver and lung trematodes. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.2
Figure 19.2

Eggs of . Note the range of sizes and shapes. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.3
Figure 19.3

adults (10 to 25 mm long by 3 to 5 mm wide). (Upper, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph; lower, CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.4
Figure 19.4

Adult liver and lung trematodes. (A) ; (B) ; (C) ; (D) and . . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Algorithm 19.1
Algorithm 19.1

Trematode infection. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.Alg19.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.5
Figure 19.5

adult in a biliary duct (cross section). (Upper, http://usmlepathslides.tumblr.com/post/21383019000/common-bile-duct-with-clonorchis; lower, from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.6
Figure 19.6

. (Upper) Adult trematode (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library). (Lower) Adult trematode in bile duct of experimentally infected hamster (from Sripa B, e232, 2008, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000232). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.7
Figure 19.7

(Top and middle) Adult trematodes (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). (Bottom) Close-up of . Multiple branches of the egg-filled uterus are visible (circle), flanked by the paired ceca (arrows) on this cross section through the midbody fluke. Eggs measure 32 by 14 μm on average (length:width ratio of 2.28) and are thus consistent with . Sparse vitellaria are found on the lateral extremes of the parasite on this section. Slight chronic inflammation of the host's lamina propria without marked eosinophilic infiltrate can be seen. Periodic acid-Schiff stain, original magnification ×100 (courtesy of www.ajtmh.org). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.8
Figure 19.8

(Top) Adult worm, fresh specimen. (Middle) Adult worm, stained. (Bottom) Eggs; note the open operculum on the egg on the right. The operculum can be difficult to see; this egg resembles that of (intestinal trematodes) and (liver trematodes), although the egg of is larger. The adult worm is 20 to 30 mm long by 8 to 13 mm wide. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.9
Figure 19.9

(Upper) Adult worm in a bile duct; note the U-shaped worm within the bile duct with surrounding tissues. (Lower) Higher magnification: adult worm in the liver; note the U-shaped worm with surrounding hepatic tissue, with a cellular response seen around the worm. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.10
Figure 19.10

Scanning electron microscope observations of the anterior part of an untreated depicting the oral sucker (OS) and ventral sucker (VS). (B) A fluke revealing blebbing (b) near the oral sucker and ventral sucker after administration of a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg artemether. (C) The oral sucker region of a fluke with sensory papillae (SP) visible. (D) Sloughing (s) seen on the oral sucker of an artemether-treated fluke. (E) Oral sucker region of an fluke with sensory papillae. (F) Blebbing and closure of oral sucker observed on an fluke treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg/kg tribendimidine. (Courtesy of Keiser J, Utzinger J, 466–483, 2009.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.11
Figure 19.11

adult worm (top), adult worm (middle), and eggs (bottom). The operculum can be difficult to see; this egg resembles that of (intestinal trematodes) and (liver trematodes), although the egg of is larger (160 to 190 μm by 70 to 90 μm). The adult worm is 25 to 75 mm long by 12 mm wide. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.12
Figure 19.12

adult worm (upper) and eggs (lower). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.13
Figure 19.13

adult worm (upper) and eggs (lower). (Courtesy of http://www.ym.edu.tw/par/html/ParPic/Helminthes/Trematode/Eurytrema_pancreaticum/Eur-pan.htm.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.14
Figure 19.14

adult worm (left) and egg (right). The opercular shoulders are clearly visible at the top of the egg, as is the thickened abopercular end. (Left, courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.15
Figure 19.15

Photographs (upper) and drawings (lower) of egg (A) and egg (B). (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.16
Figure 19.16

Second intermediate hosts for spp. (Upper, left) Crab; (right); metacercaria. (Lower) Crayfish. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.17
Figure 19.17

egg in the lung (cross section). (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.18
Figure 19.18

(Upper) sp. from lung biopsy specimen. Note the presence of the oral sucker (oval). (Lower) Higher magnification showing close-up of the cuticle with cuticular spines (ovals). Both stained with hematoxylin and eosin. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.19
Figure 19.19

brain image. CT showing multiple calcified densities in the right frontal and temporal areas. (Courtesy of http://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3347/kjp.2000.38.3.167&vmode=PUBREADER#!po=58.3333.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 19.20
Figure 19.20

: (left) adult worm; (right) egg. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch19.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819002.garcia.ch19
1. Keiser J,, Utzinger J. 2005. Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerg Infect Dis 11:15071514.
2. Beaver PC,, Jung RC,, Cupp EW. 1984. Clinical Parasitology, 9th ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
3. Bunnag D,, Cross JH,, Bunnag T,. 2000. Liver fluke infections, p 840847. In Strickland GT (ed), Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8th ed. The WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, PA.
4. Kim YH. 1999. Pancreatitis in association with Clonorchis sinensis infestation: CT evaluation. Am J Roentgenol 172:12931296.
5. Choi BI,, Han JK,, Hong ST,, Lee KH. 2004. Clonorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma: etiologic relationship and imaging diagnosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:540552.
6. Watanapa P,, Watanapa WB. 2002. Liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Br J Surg 89:962970.
7. Abdel-Rahim AY. 2001. Parasitic infections and hepatic neoplasia. Dig Dis 19:288291.
8. Procop GW. 2009. North American paragonimiasis (caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:415446.
9. Chapman RW. 1999. Risk factors for biliary tract carcinogenesis. Ann Oncol 10:S308S311.
10. Harrison PM. 1999. Prevention of bile duct cancer in primary sclerosing cholangitis. Ann Oncol 10:S208S211.
11. Al-Bahrani R,, Abuetabh Y,, Zeitouni N,, Sergi C. 2013. Cholangiocarcinoma: risk factors, environmental influences and oncogenesis. Ann Clin Lab Sci 43:195210.
12. Chen CY,, Hsieh WC,, Shih HH,, Chen SN. 1988. Immunodiagnosis of clonorchiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19:117121.
13. Li Y,, Hu X,, Liu X,, Huang Y,, Xu J,, Zhao J,, Wu Z,, Yu X. 2012. Serological diagnosis of clonorchiasis: using a recombinant propeptide of cathepsin L proteinase from Clonorchis sinensis as a candidate antigen. Parasitol Res 110: 21972203.
14. Le TH,, Van DN,, Blair D,, Sithithaworn P,, McManus DP. 2006. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini: development of a mitrochondrial-based multiplex PCR for their identification and discrimination. Exp Parasitol 112:109114.
15. Lim JH. 1990. Radiologic findings of clonorchiasis. Am J Roentgenol 155:10011008.
16. Hong ST,, Yoon KS,, Lee MJ,, Seo M,, Choi MH,, Sim JS,, Choi BI,, Yun CK,, Lee SH. 1998. Control of clonorchiasis by repeated praziquantel treatment and low diagnostic efficacy of sonography. Korean J Parasitol 36:249254.
17. Yamashita Y,, Takahashi M,, Kanazawa S,, Charnsangavej C,, Wallace S. 1992. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: an evaluation of subtypes with CT and angiography. Acta Radiol 33:351355.
18. Abramowicz M (ed). 2004. Drugs for parasitic infections. Med Lett Drugs Ther 46:112.
19. Chai JY. 2013. Praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update. Infect Chemother 45:3243.
20. Qian MB,, Chen YD,, Liang S,, Yang GJ,, Zhou XN. 2012. The global epidemiology of clonorchiasis and its relation with cholangiocarcinoma. Infect Dis Poverty 1:4.
21. Keiser J,, Utzinger J. 2009. Food-borne trematodiases. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:466483.
22. Phan VT,, Ersboll AK,, Nguyen KV,, Madsen H,, Dalsgaard A. 2010. Farm-level risk factors for fish-borne zoonotic trematode infection in integrated small-scale fish farms in northern Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e742.
23. Haswell-Elkins MR,, Sithithaworn P,, Elkins D. 1992. Opisthorchis viverrini and cholangiocarcinoma in northeast Thailand. Parasitol Today 8:8689.
24. Sripa B. 2003. Pathobiology of opisthorchiasis: an update. Acta Trop 88:209220.
25. Sripa B,, Brindley PJ,, Mulvenna J,, Thewarach L,, Smout MJ,, Maririang E,, Bethony JM,, Loukas A. 2012. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini—multiple pathways to cancer. Trends Parasitol 28:395407.
26. Mitacek EJ,, Brunnemann KD,, Suttajit M,, Martin N,, Limsila T,, Ohshima H,, Caplan LS. 1999. Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer regions in Thailand: volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food. Food Chem Toxicol 37:297305.
27. Holzinger F,, Z'graggen K,, Buchler MW. 1999. Mechanisms of biliary carcinogenesis: a pathogenetic multi-stage cascade towards cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Oncol 10:S122S126.
28. Mulvena J,, Sripa B,, Brindley PJ,, Gorman J,, Jones MK,, Colgrave M,, Jones A,, Nawaratna S,, Laha T,, Suppiprapa S,, Smout MJ,, Loukas A. 2010. The secreted and surface proteomes of the adult stage of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Proteomics 10:10631078.
29. Woolf A,, Green J,, Levine JA,, Estevez EG,, Weatherly N,, Rosenberg E,, Frothingham T. 1984. A clinical study of Laotian refugees infected with Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33:12791280.
30. World Health Organization. 1995. Control of foodborne trematode infections. WHO Tech Rep Ser 849.
31. Sirisinha S,, Chawengkirttikul R,, Haswell-Elkins MR,, Elkins DB,, Kaewkes S,, Sithithaworn P. 1995. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in an endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52:521524.
32. Sirisinha S,, Chawengkirttikul R,, Sermswan R,, Amornpant S,, Mongkolsuk S,, Panyim S. 1991. Detection of Opisthorchis viverrini by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA and DNA hybridization. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44:140145.
33. Akai PS,, Pungpak S,, Chaicumpa W,, Kitikoon V,, Ruangkunaporn Y,, Bunnag D,, Befus AD. 1995. Serum antibody responses in opisthorchiasis. Int J Parasitol 25:971973.
34. Sanpool O,, Intapan PM,, Thanchomnang T,, Janwan P,, Lulitanond V,, Doanh PN,, Van Hien H,, Dung T,, Maleewong W,, Nawa Y. 2012. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis. Parasitol Res 111:8996.
35. Armignacco O,, Ferri F,, Gomez-Morales MA,, Caterini L,, Pozio E. 2013. Cryptic and asymptomatic Opisthorchis felineus infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:364366.
36. Fuentes MV,, Sainz-Elipe S,, Nieto P,, Malone JB,, Mas-Coma S. 2005. Geographical information systems risk assessment models for zoonotic fascioliasis in the South American Andes region. Parasitologia 47:151156.
37. Norton RA,, Monroe L. 1961. Infection by Fasciola hepatica acquired in California. Gastroenterology 41:4648.
38. Weisenberg SA,, Perlada DE. 2013. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89:588581.
39. Hillyer GV,, de Galanes MS,, Rodriguez-Perez J,, Bjorland J,, de Lagrava MS,, Guzman SR,, Bryan RT. 1992. Use of the Falcon™ assay screening test–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis in the Bolivian altiplano. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46:603609.
40. Apt W,, Aguilera X,, Vega F,, Miranda C,, Zulantay I,, Perez C,, Gabor M,, Apt P. 1995. Treatment of chronic fascioliasis with triclabendazole: drug efficacy and serologic response. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52:532535.
41. Shaker ZA,, Demerdash ZA,, Mansour WA,, Hassanein HI,, el Baz HG,, el Gindy HI. 1994. Evaluation of specific Fasciola antigen in the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 24:463470.
42. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2010. Human paragonimiasis after eating raw or undercooked crayfish—Missouri, July 2006–September 2010. MMWR 59:15731576.
43. Mas-Coma S. 2005. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas. J Helminthol 79:207216.
44. Marcos L,, Maco V,, Samalvides F,, Terashima A,, Espinoza JR,, Gotuzzo E. 2005. Risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in children: a case-control study. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100:158166.
45. Dauchy FA,, Vincendeau P,, Livermann F. 2005. Eight cases of fascioliasis: clinical and microbiological features. Med Mal Infect 36:4246.
46. Keyyu JD,, Kassuku AA,, Msalilwa LP,, Monrad J,, Kyvsgaard NC. 2006. Cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale, and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa District, Tanzania. Vet Res Commun 30:4555.
47. Phiri AM,, Phiri IK,, Sikasunge CS,, Monrad J. 2005. Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin. J Vet Med Ser B 52:414416.
48. Molloy JB,, Anderson GR,, Fletcher TI,, Landmann J,, Knight BC. 2005. Evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica in cattle, sheep, and buffaloes in Australia. Vet Parasitol 130:207212.
49. Khalil G,, Haddad C,, Otrock ZK,, Jaber F,, Farra A. 2013. Halzoun, an allergic pharyngitis syndrome in Lebanon: the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum as an additional cause. Acta Trop 125:115118.
50. Agostini S,, Miquel J,, Ndiaye PI,, Marchand B. 2005. Dicrocoelium hospes Looss, 1907 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae): spermiogenesis, mature spermatozoon and ultrastructural comparative study. Parasitol Res 96:3848.
51. Blair D,, Chang Z,, Chen M,, Cui A,, Wu B,, Agatsuma T,, Iwagami M,, Corlis D,, Fu C,, Zhan X. 2005. Paragonimus skrjabini Chen, 1959 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species in eastern Asia: a combined molecular and morphological approach to identification and taxonomy. Syst Parasitol 60:121.
52. Toscano C,, Hai YS,, Nunn P,, Mott KE. 1995. Paragonimiasis and tuberculosis, diagnostic confusion: a review of the literature. Trop Dis Bull 92:R1R26.
53. Brown WJ,, Voge M. 1982. Neuropathology of Parasitic Infections. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
54. Slemenda SB,, Maddison SE,, Jong EC,, Moore DD. 1988. Diagnosis of paragonimiasis by immunoblot. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39:469471.
55. Ikeda T,, Oikawa Y,, Owhashi M,, Nawa Y. 1992. Parasite-specific IgE and IgG levels in the serum and pleural effusion of Paragonimiasis westermani patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47:104107.
56. Zihao Z,, Yiping S,, Piessens WF. 1991. Characterization of stage-specific antigens of Paragonimus westermani Am J Trop Med Hyg 44:108115.
57. Zhang Z,, Zhang Y,, Shi Z,, Sheng K,, Lui L,, Hu Z,, Piessens WF. 1993. Diagnosis of active Paragonimus westermani infections with a monoclonal antibody-based antigen detection assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49:329334.
58. Singh TS,, Sugiyama H,, Rangsiruji A. 2012. Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in India. Indian J Med Res 136:192204.
59. Calvopina M,, Guderian RH,, Paredes W,, Cooper PJ. 2003. Comparison of two single-day regimens of triclabendazole for the treatment of human pulmonary paragonimiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97:451454.
60. Amunarriz M. 1991. Intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the eastern amazonic region of Ecuador. Trop Med Parasitol 42:164166.
61. Lane MA,, Marcos LA,, Onen NF,, Demertzis LM,, Hayes EV,, Davila SZ,, Nurutdinova DR,, Bailey TC,, Weil GJ. 2012. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 18:12631267.
62. Henry TS,, Lane MA,, Weil GJ,, Bailey TC,, Bhalla S. 2012. Chest CT features of North American paragonimiasis. Am J Roentgenol. 198:10761083.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 19.1

Characteristics of liver and lung trematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Generic image for table
TABLE 19.2

Human paragonimiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19
Generic image for table
TABLE 19.3

Possible means of acquiring infection with spp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Liver and Lung Trematodes, p 487-515. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch19

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error