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Chapter 20 : Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes

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Abstract:

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.1
Figure 20.1

Life cycle of schistosomes. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.2
Figure 20.2

Schistosome cercariae. (Top, illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.3
Figure 20.3

Scanning electron micrograph of male and female schistosome . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.4
Figure 20.4

male and female . (Upper) Cross-section (indirect fluorescent antibody stain). (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library/Marianna Wilson.) (Lower) Cross-section of adult worm pair in the mesenteric venule of a mouse; hematoxylin and eosin stain (courtesy of http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=2154383_pntd.0000032.g002&req=4). Note the female is seen within the male worm in both images (arrows). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.5
Figure 20.5

egg with a mature miracidium. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura; adapted from Beaver PC et al, , 9th ed, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1984.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.6
Figure 20.6

eggs. Note the large lateral spines. (Bottom) Note that the lateral spine may not be visible if the egg is turned the wrong way in the wet preparation. Tap on the coverslip to move the eggs into a different position. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.7
Figure 20.7

miracidium (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.8
Figure 20.8

eggs in colon biopsy (arrow). (Courtesy of Jennifer Stumph, Spectrum Health; http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/parasitologyschisto.html.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.9
Figure 20.9

Schistosome eggs in tissue. (Left) ; (right) . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.10
Figure 20.10

Pipe-stem fibrosis in the liver as a result of . (Original photograph by L. Millman; from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.11
Figure 20.11

Schistosomiasis. Note the engorgement of collateral circulation of the abdomen. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.12
Figure 20.12

infection showing liver and splenic enlargement; 800 worms were removed from this patient. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of R. Goldsmith and B. H. Kean.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.13
Figure 20.13

eggs in crushed rectal biopsy tissue. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.14
Figure 20.14

(Left) egg shell (acid-fast positive [circle]) (courtesy of http://www.ganfyd.org/index.php?title=Ziehl-Neelsen_staining). (Right) egg. Note the shell is acid-fast negative (circle), but the miracidium larva within the egg shell is acid-fast positive (courtesy of http://parasite.org.au/pugh-collection/Schistosoma%20haematobium%20%201%2022.jpg_Index.html). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Algorithm 20.1
Algorithm 20.1

Schistosomiasis. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.Alg20.1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.15
Figure 20.15

(top), (middle), and (bottom) eggs. Note how much smaller the egg normally is than those of the other two species, and note the small size of the lateral spine. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.16
Figure 20.16

eggs. Note the small lateral spine within each oval. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.17
Figure 20.17

paired adult male and female in a mesenteric vein. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.18
Figure 20.18

eggs. Note the subspherical shape and smaller size than eggs. Also note the very small lateral spine (ovals). (Courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.19
Figure 20.19

eggs. Note the terminal spine and slight size variations. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.20
Figure 20.20

. (Top) Egg in a bladder biopsy (hematoxylin and eosin stain; courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). (Middle) eggs in bladder biopsy; note the terminal spine. (Bottom) Eggs in a bladder biopsy specimen (higher magnification). (Middle and bottom images from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.21
Figure 20.21

Calcified eggs in a ureter embedded in the submucosa and muscle (hematoxylin and eosin stain). (Courtesy of http://ispub.com/IJID/7/1/12041.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.22
Figure 20.22

. (Left) X ray of the pelvis in a 24-year-old Egyptian with schistosomal obstructive uropathy. Linear calcification is seen in the base of the bladder and along the lower ureters, which are dilated (arrows). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph, courtesy of Marcia Young.) (Right) Urinary bladder. An exophytic squamous cell carcinoma is present in the central portion of the photograph, and infiltrating squamous cell cancer extends to the left. Magnification, ×4. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.23
Figure 20.23

. (Upper images) Urine sediment from patient from the Sudan; note the miracidium larvae that have emerged from the eggshells (courtesy of Betty A. Forbes, Medical College of Virginia). (Lower images) Stained miracidium larvae (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman, from E. K. Markell). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Image of Figure 20.24
Figure 20.24

eggs. The miracidium tends to have a bulge in the middle, the eggs are usually larger than , and they are seen in stool rather than urine. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch20.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 20.1

Characteristics of blood trematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.2

Improved immunologic testing for the diagnosis of infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.3

Management and therapy of schistosomiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.4

Pathogenesis, pathology, and symptoms seen with infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.5

Distribution of infection and morbidity due to in northern Cambodia

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.6

Disease manifestations seen with infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.7

Mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis due to

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20
Generic image for table
TABLE 20.8

Schistosomiasis control measures

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Blood Trematodes: Schistosomes, p 516-551. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch20

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