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Chapter 22 : Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates

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Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.1
Figure 22.1

Life cycle of (, ). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.2
Figure 22.2

(, ) trophozoites. Scanning electron micrographs. Note the sucking disk (arrows). (Upper, courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library; lower, courtesy of Marietta Voge.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.3
Figure 22.3

( ) Trophozoite of (front view); ( ) trophozoite of (side view); ( ) cyst of ; ( ) trophozoite of ; ( ) trophozoite of (two fragmented nuclei); ( ) trophozoite of (one fragmented nucleus); ( ) trophozoite of ; ( ) cyst of ; ( ) trophozoite of ; ( ) cysts of ; ( ) trophozoite of ; ( and ) cysts of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.4
Figure 22.4

(, ) (Top, left) Trophozoite in iodine wet mount; (right) cyst in iodine wet mount. (Row 2, left) Trophozoite stained with iron-hematoxylin. (Right, and both images in row 3) Trophozoites stained with Wheatley's trichrome. (Bottom) Cysts of (left, iron-hematoxylin; right, Wheatley's trichrome). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Algorithm 22.1
Algorithm 22.1

Giardiasis.

Fecal immunoassay kits can be used on human stool specimens to confirm the presence of spp. Currently available reagents can be used with fresh, frozen, or preserved specimens (not those containing polyvinyl alcohol). If fluorescent testing is performed, the specimen should not be frozen (the actual organisms are disrupted during the freeze-thaw cycle); however, fresh or preserved specimens are acceptable. Check with each manufacturer for compatibility of the fixative with the proposed test; not all fixatives are compatible with all types of fecal immunoassays.

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.5
Figure 22.5

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.6
Figure 22.6

Trophozoites of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 22.7
FIGURE 22.7

(Top) Trophozoites of : (left) the trophozoite contains a single nucleus fragmented into four parts; (right) the trophozoite contains two nuclei, both of which are also fragmented. (Row 2, left) Trophozoite with a single nucleus that has not yet fragmented—can be confused with ; (right) trophozoite with a single nucleus that has begun to fragment. (Row 3, left and right) Cysts of ; note the space between the cyst wall and organism, also the two nuclei with fragmented chromatin. (Bottom, left) Cyst from rat feces; (right) transverse section across cyst showing the outer fibrillar cyst wall, peritrophic space, and the enclosed parasite. (Bottom row from reference 67 with permission). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.8
Figure 22.8

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.9
Figure 22.9

(Upper, left) , note undulating membrane extends the entire length of the body (arrow) (courtesy of http://umvf.univ-nantes.fr/parasitologie/enseignement/trichomonose/site/html/3.html); (right) , note the undulating membrane extends about half the length of the body (arrow). (Lower, left) , note undulating membrane extends the entire length of the body (arrow); (right) , note the axostyle (supporting rod) protruding from the bottom (arrow). In this example, no undulating membrane or flagella are visible (Wheatley's trichrome stain). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.10
Figure 22.10

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.11
Figure 22.11

, specimen from the mouth, Giemsa stain. Note the undulating membrane extends almost the entire length of the body (arrow). Also note the axostyle protruding from the posterior end (oval). In this example, the flagella are clearly visible. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.12
Figure 22.12

Life cycle of , , and . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.13
Figure 22.13

. (Upper, left and right) Trophozoites of (note the feeding groove; flagella are not visible) (arrows). (Bottom, left) cyst (iodine wet mount; nucleus and curved fibril are visible, as is the lemon shape); (right) cyst (note the “lemon or pear” shape and the curved fibril, the shepherd's crook) (arrow). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.14
Figure 22.14

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.15
Figure 22.15

( ) Trophozoite of ; ( ) cyst of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.16
Figure 22.16

(Upper, left) Trophozoite in wet mount (note surrounding cilia shadows) (arrow); (right) cyst in wet mount (note the macronucleus is visible, but no cilia are visible within the cyst wall). (Lower, left) Trophozoite, stained, note the large macronucleus (in some permanent stained smears, the organism stains so dark, it will mimic a helminth egg); (right) cyst, stained (note very dark macronucleus, micronucleus is usually not visible within the trophozoite or cyst). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Image of Figure 22.17
Figure 22.17

Trophozoites of . (Upper) Tissue of pig large intestine. The cilia are visible surrounding the trophozoites; also note the oral groove (arrow). (Image courtesy of Dr. Forey, Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University/Pullman.) (Lower) Trophozoite in human colon (note large macronucleus; some cilia are visible on the lower trophozoite [arrow]). (Image courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch22.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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Tables

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TABLE 22.1

species

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.2

genotypes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.3

Intestinal protozoa: trophozoites of flagellates

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.4

Intestinal protozoa: cysts of flagellates

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.5

Representative commercially available kits for immunodetection of

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.6

Recommendations for therapy for giardiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.7

Guidelines for hand washing

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.8

Questions for consideration when testing well water

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.9

Intestinal protozoa: ciliate

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22
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TABLE 22.10

Intestinal flagellates and ciliates: recommended diagnostic procedures

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Intestinal Protozoa: Flagellates and Ciliates, p 584-611. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch22

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