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Chapter 24 : Free-Living Amebae

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Abstract:

    • spp.
    • ()

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.1
Figure 24.1

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

Diagram of trophozoite. (Upper row) Flagellate and cyst forms of ; (lower row) trophozoite and cyst of spp. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.3
Figure 24.3

(Upper, left) Scanning electronic micrograph (SEM) of (Lovell strain) ameboid cell with numerous blunt pseudopods; (right) SEM of (Lovell strain) preflagellate, rounded and producing two short, blunt flagella. (Lower, left) SEM of (Lovell strain) flagellate with two long, pointed flagella emerging from the anterior rostrum; (right) SEM of (Lovell strain) reverting flagellate with two long, pointed flagella. (Courtesy of D. T. John, reprinted from Cable BL, John DT, 467–472, 1986, with permission.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.4
Figure 24.4

(Top) Three amebae of the pathogenic free-living ameba attacking and engulfing a fourth, presumably dead, ameba. The amebae are using sucker-like structures (amebostomes) in this novel form of phagocytosis. (Courtesy of D. T. John, from John DT, Cole TB Jr, Carciano-Cabral FM, 12–14, 1984). (Middle) trophozoites. (Bottom) trophozoite ingesting starch granules. (Middle and bottom images courtesy of F. M. Marciano-Cabral.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.5
Figure 24.5

(Top, middle) Organisms in brain tissue from a human with PAM. (Bottom) A cytospin of fixed CSF showing a trophozoite stained with Giemsa-Wright stain (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.6
Figure 24.6

Examples of neti pots for nasal irrigation. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.7
Figure 24.7

: warning sign indicating possible contamination of tap water with pathogenic protozoa (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.8
Figure 24.8

(Top) Nonnutrient agar plate seeded with a lawn of , a food source for free-living amebae; are growing on the bacterial lawn (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). (Row 2) Trophozoites (arrows) and cysts (circle) on the agar surface culture. (Row 3) Trophozoite from culture in wet mount. (Bottom) Trophozoite ingesting bacteria on surface of agar (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.9
Figure 24.9

(Upper) Direct fluorescent antibody stain; (lower) indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay for , 1,000× oil magnification (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.10
Figure 24.10

Life cycle of , the etiologic agent of amebic keratitis. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.11
Figure 24.11

Life cycle of and , the etiologic agents of GAE. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.12
Figure 24.12

(Upper) trophozoites (note the spiky acanthapodia). (Lower) cysts. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.13
Figure 24.13

(Upper) trophozoite (note the spiky acanthapodia). (Lower) cyst (note the double-walled cyst). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.14
Figure 24.14

(Top, left) Coronal section of the cerebral hemispheres with cortical and subcortical necrosis from a fatal human case of GAE; (right) magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain after the first seizure, showing a hemorrhagic lesion in the right frontal lobe. (Middle) Hematoxylin and eosin stain of brain tissue from a human with GAE. Numerous trophozoites can be identified within the tissue (arrow). (Bottom) Trophozoites identified within vascular walls (arrow). All images courtesy of A. J. Martinez. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.15
Figure 24.15

keratitis. (Upper) Left, broad illumination; right, slit beam illumination. Early, central stromal inflammation (keratitis); resembles the immunogenic form of herpes simplex stromal keratitis. (Lower) Left, broad illumination with slit beam; right, high magnified slit beam. Typical advanced ring infiltrate. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, photographs by Dan B. Jones.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.16
Figure 24.16

infection in a 28-year-old woman whose arm was bitten by her child. (Upper) Cutaneous lesion after approximately 6 months; (lower) brain lesions in same patient, disseminated disease. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photographs courtesy of G.R. Healy, CDC.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.17
Figure 24.17

trophozoites and cysts in brain tissue, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. (Upper) Trophozoite (arrow). (Lower) Cyst. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, photographs courtesy of G. S. Visvesvara, CDC.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.18
Figure 24.18

Microscopic view of amebae in skin. (Upper) Surgical skin biopsy specimen showing amebic cysts (arrows) in the dermal-hypodermal junction (hematoxylin and eosin stain). (Lower) Surgical skin biopsy specimen showing intravascular amebic trophozoite (arrow) characterized by acanthapodia, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and a prominent nucleolus (hematoxylin and eosin stain). (From Barete S et al, [5], 2007, http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/13/5/06-1347_article.htm.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.19
Figure 24.19

(Upper) trophozoite in wet preparation (note the “spiky” pseudopods, called acanthapodia). (Lower) cysts in wet preparation (note the double-wall appearance). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.20
Figure 24.20

Trophozoite and (B) cyst of doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.21
Figure 24.21

(Top and middle) Trophozoites; note the finger-like pseudopodia. (Bottom) Cysts. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.22
Figure 24.22

(Top and middle) Trophozoites in brain. (Bottom) Cyst in brain (hematoxylin and eosin). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.23
Figure 24.23

sp. using differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. (Upper) Trophozoites; note the presence of two nuclei, connected to each other by connecting filaments. (Lower) Cysts. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.24
Figure 24.24

. Four trophozoites (arrows) seen in brain tissue. Note the presence of two nuclei within some of the trophozoites where both are in the same plane of focus. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch24.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
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References

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1. Booton GC,, Carmichael JR,, Visvesvara GS,, Byers TJ,, Fuerst PA. 2003. Genotyping of Balamuthia mandrillaris based on nuclear 18S and mitochondrial 16S rRNA genes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:6569.
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3. Schuster FL,, Dunnebacke TH,, Booton GC,, Yagi S,, Kohnmeier CK,, Glaser C,, Vugia D,, Bakardjiev A,, Azimi P,, Maddux-Gonzalez M,, Martinez AJ,, Visvesvara GS. 2003. Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol 41:31753180.
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 24.1

Free-living amebae causing disease in humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.2

Definitions pertaining to the relationships among free-living amebae and other organisms

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.3

Comparison of and spp.

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.4

Safe water for ritual nasal rinsing and ablution (prevention of infection)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.5

infection: clinical manifestations of patients with AIDS

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.6

infection: examples of clinical features in specific patients with AIDS

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.7

infections, treatment, and positive patient outcomes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24
Generic image for table
TABLE 24.8

Summary of information on the newly recognized pathogenic free-living ameba

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Free-Living Amebae, p 667-693. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch24

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