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Chapter 28 : Trypanosomiasis

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Abstract:

  • African trypanosomiasis
  • American trypanosomiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Figures

Image of Figure 28.1
Figure 28.1

Tsetse fly ( sp.), vector of African trypanosomiasis; the typical “hatchet” cell is seen within the circle. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.2
Figure 28.2

Distribution of trypanosomes in Africa. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology map, modified from WHO Report Series 739, 1986; from .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.3
Figure 28.3

Life cycle of and . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.4
Figure 28.4

trypomastigotes in peripheral blood smears. Note the small kinetoplast (circle) and undulating membrane (arrows). Also, note in the second image, two of the trypomastigotes at the bottom appear to have just completed binary fission. Division can also be seen in the lower two images. (Bottom image courtesy of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.5
Figure 28.5

Life cycle stages of trypanosomes. Amastigotes have been confirmed in the life cycle of as one of the stages in the human host, but this stage in humans in African trypanosomiasis is only suspected and not confirmed. (Illustration by Nobuko Kitamura.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.6
Figure 28.6

trypomastigotes in peripheral blood smears; note the undulating membrane. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.7
Figure 28.7

(Upper, left) Trypanosomal chancre on shoulder of patient, with lymphangitis toward axilla; (right) trypanosomal chancre on throat of patient (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library, Peter L. Chiodini, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London). (Lower) Winterbottom's sign (enlarged cervical lymph nodes in the posterior cervical triangle; arrow) (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.8
Figure 28.8

Comatose patients with African sleeping sickness (courtesy of WHO). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.9
Figure 28.9

Coronal section of brain showing congested white matter and petechial hemorrhages (arrows) (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.10
Figure 28.10

Morular (Mott) cells in the CSF (arrows), associated with trypanosomiasis. (Top left image courtesy of the Federation of Infectious Diseases Societies of Southern Africa. Top right image image from Bavle RM, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, 2–3, 2013. Bottom image courtesy of Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney Medical School, Sydney, Australia.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Algorithm 28.1
Algorithm 28.1

African trypanosomiasis. doi:9781555819002.ch28.Alg1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.11
Figure 28.11

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.12
Figure 28.12

Triatomid/reduviid/“kissing”/assassin bugs (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library; lower from J. G. Hindebrand). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.13
Figure 28.13

Romaña's sign. The assumption is that this is the bite site of the vector, the triatomid bug; unilateral conjunctivitis, palpebral and periorbital edema. (Upper, courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library; lower, courtesy of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.14
Figure 28.14

(Top, left and right) trypomastigotes in a peripheral blood smear. Note the large kinetoplast (arrow). (Bottom) Scanning electron micrograph of a trypomastigote of (courtesy of David T. John). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.15
Figure 28.15

amastigotes in cardiac muscle; note the actual amastigote (nucleus, kinetoplast) (arrow). Lower panel is higher magnification, hematoxylin and eosin stain. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.16
Figure 28.16

Epimastigotes of from culture. Note that the kinetoplast is anterior to the nucleus (arrow). (Lower image courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.17
Figure 28.17

An enlarged heart in a 46-year-old man 13 days after onset of acute Chagas' disease. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.18
Figure 28.18

Acute chagasic myocarditis. (Original photograph by B. H. Kean; from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.19
Figure 28.19

(Top left) Open chagasic heart with thinning of wall; (right) note the dilation of the apical myocardium. (Middle) Aneurysmal dilatation and thinning of the apical myocardium, plus marked concentric muscular hypertrophy. (Bottom) Same heart with thin apical myocardium. Note the light shining through the thinned muscle. (Upper right, middle, and bottom photographs by J. H. Edgecome, from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.20
Figure 28.20

Chagasic megaesophagus. (Original photography by D. N. Reifsnyder, from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.21
Figure 28.21

(Top) Megaesophagus in 34-year-old Brazilian patient with chronic Chagas' disease; (middle) megacolon in an adult male with Chagas' disease (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs). (Bottom) Megacolon, cut image (original photograph by B. H. Kean; from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.22
Figure 28.22

Xenodiagnosis for detection of positive Chagas' disease patient (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Algorithm 28.2
Algorithm 28.2

American trypanosomiasis. doi:9781555819002.ch28.Alg2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.23
Figure 28.23

Life cycle of . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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Image of Figure 28.24
Figure 28.24

trypomastigote in a peripheral blood smear. Note the small kinetoplast. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch28.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 28.1

Classification of trypanosomes infecting humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
Generic image for table
TABLE 28.2

Characteristics of East and West African trypanosomiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
Generic image for table
TABLE 28.3

Methods available for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis ()

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
Generic image for table
TABLE 28.4

Methods available for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis ()

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
Generic image for table
TABLE 28.5

Characteristics of American trypanosomiais

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28
Generic image for table
TABLE 28.6

: principal vectors

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Trypanosomiasis, p 810-844. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch28

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