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Chapter 32 : Immunology of Parasitic Infections

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Abstract:

    • Amebiasis
    • Giardiasis
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • African trypanosomiasis
    • American trypanosomiasis
    • Malaria
    • Helminth infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Figures

Image of Figure 32.1
Figure 32.1

Representation of the immune response. Antigen (Ag) is recognized and processed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and presented to Th1 or Th2 cells that carry receptors for the antigen. At the same time, the APCs release IL-1, a cytokine that activates resting Th1 and Th2 cells. Activated Th1 cells produce IL-2, which activates cytotoxic T (TC) or natural killer (NK) cells. Cytotoxic T cells kill target cells carrying the original antigen in a major histocompatibility complex-restricted way, while NK cells kill target cells nonspecifically. Another product of the Th1 cells is IFN-γ, which activates resting macrophages to become more phagocytic and to release TNF, reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and nitric oxide (NO). Both ROI and NO are involved in killing intracellular parasites or those in close proximity to the activated macrophage. The Th2 cells release IL-4 and IL-5, which are involved in B-cell activation and the release of antibodies specific to the antigen. IL-5 also activates eosinophils. Antibodies may cooperate with macrophages and eosinophils to serve as a bridge bringing the activated cell and the parasite together; they may also support the release of toxic molecules directly onto the surface of the parasite. : It is important to remember that some of the cytokines exert both a positive and negative influence on the immune response at the same time; this diagram is designed to show the main features of the overall immune response. (Adapted from and .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Image of Figure 32.2
Figure 32.2

, amebiasis. (Top) Two examples of trophozoites containing ingested RBCs within the cytoplasm (morphologic evidence of true pathogen, ). (Middle) Amebic intestinal “flask-shaped” ulcer. (Bottom) Amebic liver abscess (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Image of Figure 32.3
Figure 32.3

, giardiasis. (Upper, left) trophozoite; (right) cysts. (Lower) trophozoites within mucus (fecal specimen). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Image of Figure 32.4
Figure 32.4

, toxoplasmosis. (Upper) tachyzoites (actively proliferating form). (Lower) bradyzoites (resting forms). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Image of Figure 32.5
Figure 32.5

sp., African trypanosomiasis. (Upper) trypomastigotes in thin blood films; note the very small kinetoplast (circle) and undulating membrane (arrow). (Lower) African trypanosomiasis, heavy parasitemia. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Figure 32.6

, American trypanosomiasis. (Upper) trypomastigotes in thin blood films. Note the large kinetoplast (circle); the nucleus tends to be somewhat linear (arrow). (Lower) amastigotes in muscle. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Figure 32.7

spp., malaria, representative typical stages for each of the five human species. (Left to right) developing trophozoite in enlarged RBC; developing trophozoite with RBC fimbriated edges; band form in normal/small RBC; crescent-shaped gametocyte; double rings/band form, resembles mix of and . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch32.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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Tables

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TABLE 32.1

Parasite antigens

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.2

Methods of antigen analysis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.3

Immunoregulatory systems in the host

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.4

Humoral and cellular barriers to infection (serum or at site of infection)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.5

Macrophage functions

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.6

Differences between Th1 and Th2 CD4 T helper cells

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.7

Allergic reactions responsible for disease in parasitic infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
Generic image for table
TABLE 32.8

Immune system “alphabet soup” and definitions

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.8

Immune system “alphabet soup” and definitions

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.9

Various methods used by parasites to evade the host immune response

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.10

Immune system antibodies (neutralization, agglutination, complement activation, and facilitated opsonization)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.11

Interaction between and T lymphocytes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.12

Interaction between and macrophages and

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.13

Updated information on immune responses seen in malaria infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.14

Mechanisms of infected RBC elimination and evasion of the host immune system in infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.15

Immunopathological complications of malaria infection

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.16

vaccine development: continuing problems

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.17

Proposed target profile for a malaria sexual stage and mosquito transmission-blocking vaccine

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32
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TABLE 32.18

Immune responses to parasites (protozoa and helminths)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Immunology of Parasitic Infections, p 954-985. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch32

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