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Chapter 34 : Histologic Identification of Parasites

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Abstract:

  • Protozoa
    • Amebae
    • Flagellates
    • Ciliates
    • Coccidia
    • Microsporidia
  • Helminths
    • Nematodes
    • Cestodes
    • Trematodes
  • Blood Parasites
    • Malaria
    • Leishmania
    • Trypanosomes
    • Filarial Nematodes
  • Appendixes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.1
Figure 34.1

Amebic intestinal ulcers. (Upper) Intestinal ulcers; these may coalesce under the surface. (Lower) Note the “flask shape” (small opening on the mucosal surface and a larger area of destruction below the surface); the serosa is edematous and hyperemic. Multiple ulcers may develop and coalesce. Organisms would be found in the healthy tissue border, not in the necrotic material within the ulcer. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, Mae Melvin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.2
Figure 34.2

Amebic intestinal ulcer. trophozoites in colon tissue (arrows); note the nucleus in each trophozoite (central karyosome); H&E stain (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.3
Figure 34.3

Amebic intestinal ulcer. trophozoites in colonic ulcer, demonstrating a nucleus with tiny, centrally placed karyosome (arrow). Brown-Hopps stain (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.4
Figure 34.4

Amebic lung section. trophozoites in lung tissue, PAS stain. Note the trophozoites are bright pink and can easily be seen. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.5
Figure 34.5

Amebic liver abscess. (Upper) Gross image of liver abscess caused by . Note the sunken areas of the abscess. (Lower) Gross image of liver abscess, cut specimen. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, Mae Melvin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.6
Figure 34.6

spp. (Upper) Cutaneous abscess on arm; nonhealing ulcer, possibly as a result of a human bite wound, that was not recognized as being caused by spp. Therapy with routine antibiotics was ineffective. (Courtesy of George Healy, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.) (Lower) trophozoite (left), cyst (right). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.7
Figure 34.7

(primary amebic meningoencephalitis). (Upper) Cytospin of cerebrospinal fluid; note the trophozoite (arrow) with large karyosome (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). (Lower) trophozoites in brain tissue; note the large karyosome (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.8
Figure 34.8

(Upper) Trophozoites (circle) are seen in brain tissue. The amebae have the large, characteristic karyosome. The staining of the karyosome is much darker than that of the cytoplasm of the amebae. (Lower) Cyst in brain tissue. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.9
Figure 34.9

. Trophozoites (arrows) seen in brain tissue; note the presence of two nuclei within some of the trophozoites (arrow) where both are in the same plane of focus (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.10
Figure 34.10

(, ). (Top) Trophozoites in GI tract (circle). (Middle) Trophozoites on the surface of the duodenal mucosa (arrows) (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). (Bottom) Trophozoites in mucus from duodenal aspirate, Wheatley's trichrome stain. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.11
Figure 34.11

Trophozoites in intestinal tissue; note dark macronucleus and evidence of the oral/feeding groove (arrow). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.12
Figure 34.12

(Upper) Cyst in brain tissue (bradyzoites). (Lower) Tachyzoites in bone marrow. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.13
Figure 34.13

spp. (Top) Sarcocyst in tissue. (Middle) Note the septa which are visible in this low-power image. Bradyzoites of in striated muscle resemble spp. However, the bradyzoites are usually more rounded at both ends, and they are contained in larger cysts than those of (Bottom) The septa are visible, as are the crescentic spores. The sarcocyst wall varies from thin and smooth to thick and striated. Although sarcocysts may be confused with cysts of , sarcocysts tend to be larger and contain larger bradyzoites. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.14
Figure 34.14

Intestinal villi. (Upper) Normal villi are long and slender. (Lower) Blunted villi, typical of histology seen with coccidial infections ( spp., ) (from reference ). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.15
Figure 34.15

spp. (Top) Organisms shown at the brush border (circle), developing in parasitophorous vacuoles and thus enclosed within membranes of host origin. The mucosal architecture tends to be abnormal, with marked shortening of the villi and hypertrophy of the crypts. (Middle) Organisms shown at the brush border (circle); thick epon section. (Bottom) Color-enhanced transmission electron micrograph showing (courtesy of the Science Photo Library, http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/445435/view). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.16
Figure 34.16

Microsporidia. (Left) Spores in corneal lesion, PAS stain; note the dark-staining dot at the end of each spore. (Right) Spores in corneal lesion, silver stain; note spores appear to be outlined (1,000× oil immersion). Routine histologic testing can be performed by using tissue Gram stains or silver stains. Touch preparations can be methanol fixed and stained with Giemsa stain. Plastic-embedded tissues stained with PAS, silver, acid-fast, and routine H&E stains generally stain better than paraffin-embedded tissues. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.17
Figure 34.17

Section of appendix showing spores . The anterior end of the spore has a PAS-positive granule (arrows) (PAS, ×1,260). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.18
Figure 34.18

Microsporidia in various stages of development in the intestinal enterocytes (1,000× oil immersion). When seen in stool, the spores measure approximately 1 to 3 μm. The microsporidia multiply extensively within the host cell cytoplasm; the life cycle includes repeated divisions by binary fission (merogony) or multiple fission (schizogony) and spore production (sporogony). Both merogony and sporogony can occur in the same cell at the same time. During sporogony, a thick spore wall is formed, providing environmental protection for this infectious stage of the parasite. Microsporidia are characterized by having spores containing a polar tubule, which is an extrusion mechanism for injecting the infective spore contents into host cells. To date, nine genera have been recognized in humans: , , , , , , , , and . doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.19
Figure 34.19

(Upper) spores in wall of ileum; 90-minute Grocott methenamine silver. (Lower) in myocardium; Ziehl-Neelsen. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.20
Figure 34.20

Diagram of roundworm musculature morphology in tissue. (A) Polymyarian type. (B) Meromyarian type. (C) Homomyarian type. C, cuticle; DVC, dorsal-ventral chord; IN, intestine; LA, lateral alae; LC, lateral chord; M, muscle; OV, ovary. See . (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.21
Figure 34.21

Diagram through (left, female; right, male) (polymyarian type of musculature). Note the well-developed muscle layer divided into four bands separated by the lateral, ventral, and dorsal chords. The muscle cells project into the body cavity. C, cuticle; DVC, dorsal-ventral chord; HY, hypodermis; IN, intestine; LC, lateral chord; M, muscle; SR, seminal receptacle; SV, seminal vesicle; UT, uterus. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.22
Figure 34.22

Diagram through (left) and (right) (polymyarian type of musculature). In , note the well-developed muscular esophagus (ES) and the Y-shaped lateral chords (LC). In (brain tissue), one section is through the esophagus (ES) while the other is through the middle of the body, showing the excretory columns (EC), intestine (IN), and large lateral chords (LC). Note that the lateral alae (LA) are visible in each section. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.23
Figure 34.23

Cross section of an adult male . The section shows the outer protective cuticle secreted by the underlying hypodermis ( ). Longitudinal muscle bands ( ), dorsal and ventral nerve chords, lateral lines (containing the excretory canals), the intestine, and the pseudocoelom (body cavity) are also visible. The diagram also depicts various sections through the long, coiled testis ( ) and vas deferens ( ), the latter of which contains the ameboid spermatocytes (sperm cells). Note: These structures may differ in shape, depending on the way they were sectioned. ( ) Lateral line with excretory canal; ( ) intestine; ( ) pseudocoelom. (Courtesy of the Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Rick Gillis and Roger J. Haro.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.24
Figure 34.24

Cross section of an adult female , stained with H&E. The hypodermis and musculature are visible below the cuticle. Note the presence of the prominent muscle cells (MU), gravid uterus (UT), intestine (IN), and coiled ovary (OV). (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.25
Figure 34.25

Cross section of the cuticle of an adult , stained with H&E. Shown here are the cuticle (CU) and, immediately below the cuticle, the thin hypodermis (HY). Also shown are the prominent muscle cells (MU) and one of the lateral chords (LC). (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f25

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.26
Figure 34.26

(Upper) CNS atrophy, sclerosis, and larval granuloma in the brain in a 2-year-old boy who died following 14 months of CNS problems. (Lower) larva (polymyarian type of musculature) and inflammation in the corpus callosum of an infected rabbit. Note the prominent alae (circle), excretory columns (oval), and multinuclear intestinal cells (arrow). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of K. R. Kazacos.) (See also Fig. 34.22 .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f26

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.27
Figure 34.27

(polymyarian type of musculature) encapsulated larvae in mouse lung tissue with varying degrees of damage, including secondary granuloma containing larvae in different degrees of destruction, concentric fibrosis, and foci of inflammatory infiltration composed of macrophages (H&E). (Courtesy of U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f27

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.28
Figure 34.28

(Upper) larva present in the eye (arrow). Eosinophil-rich vitreous abscess contains a fragment of a nematode larva (H&E). (Lower) larva recovered in liver (visceral larva migrans). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f28

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.29
Figure 34.29

cross section. Note the typical polymyarian type of musculature and the Y-shaped lateral chords (arrow). The large esophagus is in the center of the image (ES). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) (See also Fig. 34.22 .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f29

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.30
Figure 34.30

sp. (Upper) Note the polymyarian type of musculature and the clearly delineated lateral chords. Also note the longitudinal ridges in the cuticle (bumpy appearance). (Lower) Higher magnification than upper image. Note the typical polymyarian type of musculature and the more clearly delineated longitudinal ridges on the inner surface of the cuticle (circle). The cuticle is relatively thick and multilayered. The very prominent lateral chords are also visible (LC), as is the lateral ridge (arrow); although ventral and dorsal chords are present, they are usually inconspicuous. (Courtesy of Marjorie R. Fowler and Andrea Linscott.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f30

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.31
Figure 34.31

eggs in liver. These eggs resemble those of , but the shells in eggs are striated. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f31

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.32
Figure 34.32

Diagram through (both images are of females) (meromyarian type of musculature). Note the very conspicuous lateral alae (LA). The muscle cells (M) are large, of various shapes, and irregular; there are fewer cells per quadrant than seen in the polymyarian type ( Fig. 34.20 ). The lateral chords (LC), intestine (IN), ovary (OV), and uterus (UT) are also visible. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f32

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.33
Figure 34.33

(Upper) Longitudinal section of female in the cecum, H&E stain; note the esophageal bulb (arrow) (Korea Society for Parasitology, Sung-Jong Hong). (Lower) Intestinal lumen containing two transverse sections of an worm. This nematode has the meromyarian type of musculature. Note the lateral alae (circle) and intestine (arrow). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f33

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.34
Figure 34.34

Cross section of adult female worm in the appendix. Note the characteristic football-shaped eggs (arrows). The lateral alae are also visible. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f34

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.35
Figure 34.35

Diagram through (female on the left, male on the right) (homomyarian type of musculature). Note the very small, uniform muscle cells (M) with a regular arrangement, with many cells arranged in a complete circle. Note also the absence of lateral chords. The ejaculatory duct (EJ), intestine (IN), ovary (OV), oviduct (OVD), uterus (UT), and testis (TE) can also be seen. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f35

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.36
Figure 34.36

Colon heavily infected by ; photo taken during colonoscopy. (Courtesy of American Association for the Advancement of Science; reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f36

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.37
Figure 34.37

. (Upper) Several sections of adult male and female worms in the colon, showing the narrow anterior portion of the worm within the mucosa (“whip”) (arrows) and the thicker posterior portion (“handle”) free in the lumen (×15; Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). (Lower) Cross section of female worm (I, intestine; OV, ovary; UT, uterus). The musculature is of the homomyarian type, with very small, uniform, regular cells with many cells in a complete circle. No lateral chords are present. (Courtesy of Andrea Linscott.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f37

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.38
Figure 34.38

(Upper) Adult hookworm attached to the intestine (courtesy of Richard Bungiro, Yale University). (Lower) Hookworm; section of a worm attached to the mucosa. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f38

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.39
Figure 34.39

Hookworm. (Upper) Longitudinal section of an adult hookworm worm in a bowel biopsy, stained with H&E. Note the oral cavity (OC) and strong, muscled esophagus (ES). (Lower) Cross section of an adult hookworm from the same specimen in upper image. Shown here are the musculature (MU), intestine with brush border (IN), excretory ducts (ED), and coiled ovaries (OV). (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f39

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.40
Figure 34.40

(Upper) Encysted larvae in muscle. Although spp. have the homomyarian type of musculature, the magnification of this image is insufficient to show the details. (Lower) Squash preparation of tissue biopsy specimen. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f40

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.41
Figure 34.41

Diagram of a transverse section of a proglottid. Under the thick tegument, the underlying parenchyma is divided into cortical (CO) and medullary (ME) layers by a thick band of longitudinal muscles (M). The excretory columns (EC) are clearly visible. Branches of the uterus (UT) and testes (TE) are also seen. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f41

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.42
Figure 34.42

(Left) Diagram of a cysticercus of The extensively folded spiral canal and a scolex with two large suckers are clearly visible. The denser tissue of the rostellum (between the two suckers) is also visible. In this particular section plane, the hooklets are not visible. Host tissue forms a fibrous capsule around the cysticercus. (Right) Diagram of a unilocular hydatid cyst of The outer thick fibrous wall is visible (FW) and is produced by the host. Within the fibrous layer is the thinner laminated layer (LL), while right below that layer is the thin germinal epithelial layer (GL) from which daughter cysts and multiple protoscolices arise. Multiple protoscolices within a brood capsule are visible in this illustration. Note that the middle laminated layer is acellular and the thin germinal layer contains some calcareous corpuscles. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f42

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.43
Figure 34.43

cysticercus in pig muscle. The cysticercus consists of a fluid-filled bladder containing a single protoscolex. The cysticerci () have a thick bladder wall, and the rostellum has two rows of hooklets (13 each). Each cysticercus measures 5 to 15 mm long by 4 to 12 mm wide. A convoluted spiral canal leads to the rostellum. The parenchyma usually contains calcareous corpuscles. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of P. M. Schantz.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f43

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.44
Figure 34.44

(Upper) Subcutaneous nodule from a patient. (Lower) Higher magnification than upper figure; note the suckers (S). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of K. Juniper, Jr.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f44

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.45
Figure 34.45

Cysticercus. (Upper) Scolex of a cysticercus showing a sucker and hooklets of (circle); note the hooklets are barely visible. (Lower) Enlarged image of the hooklets within the cysticercus. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f45

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.46
Figure 34.46

racemose cyst in the brain. (Upper) The bladder wall of the racemose cysticercus has three separate layers. The tegumental surface has wart-like protuberances and is acidophilic (T). Beneath the tegument are small, rounded, pyknotic nuclei (N). The innermost layer is made up of loose connective tissue (CT). (Lower) Higher magnification. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f46

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.47
Figure 34.47

cysticerci in the villi of a mouse. (Top) When mature, these cysticerci (circle) emerge, attach to the intestinal wall, and develop into the adult worm (same life cycle seen in humans). (Middle) Note the curved suckers (green arrows) and hooklets (black arrow). (Bottom) Section through embedded in the mucosa. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of B. Gueft; specimen courtesy of M. Yoeli.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f47

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.48
Figure 34.48

(Upper) brood capsules (BC) arising from the germinal membrane (GM). The fibrinous wall of the host (W) and the laminated membrane (LM) are also seen. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) (Lower) Hydatid cyst; note the layers and brood capsules filled with protoscolices (circle) (courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library, Peter Schantz). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f48

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.49
Figure 34.49

(Upper) Brood capsules (BC); the dark areas represent the hooklets on the protoscolices (circle). (Lower) Hooklets stained with the Ryan modified trichrome/blue. (Courtesy of Norbert Ryan.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f49

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.50
Figure 34.50

. Numerous vesicles in tissue; H&E stain. Note there is no single limiting membrane, as occurs in hydatid cysts. This growth tends to mimic a metastatic cancer. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f50

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.51
Figure 34.51

(Upper row) Coenurus (, ) removed from a subcutaneous nodule in the shoulder. (Left) Gross specimen. (Middle) Cross section. Although the species was not identified in this case, the pathology is consistent with . (Right) Higher magnification (200×) of the same specimen shown on the left. The black arrow points to hooklets in one of the protoscolices. (Lower row) Coenurus from a human eye. (Left) species with multiple protoscolices (circle); no daughter cysts develop in a coenurus. (Middle) Higher magnification of one of the protoscolices; note the hooklets (circle). (Right) High magnification of the protoscolex showing multiple hooklets. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f51

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.52
Figure 34.52

sparganum larva. (Top) Spargana are larval forms of various tapeworms in the genus . Spargana are white and ribbonlike in shape, range from a few millimeters to >30 cm in length, and are actively motile. The solid sparganum lacks suckers and bladder walls; there are irregular bundles of muscle fibers, typical folded tegument, and calcareous corpuscles in the parenchyma (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). (Middle) sparganum; note the calcareous corpuscles, which are refractile sand-like particles in the parenchyma (circle) (courtesy of R. E. Pugh, http://parasite.org.au/pugh-collection/Spirometra%20mansonoides%204%2021.jpg_Index.html). (Bottom) Proliferating sparganum in groin tissue of a patient from Paraguay; H&E (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f52

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.53
Figure 34.53

Diagram of the cross section of a trematode. Note the coiled uterus (UT) containing eggs, the lobed ovary (OV), intestinal ceca (IC), and excretory canals (EC). Also, note the large ventral sucker (VS). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f53

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.54
Figure 34.54

(Left) Diagram of male and female trematodes. The female worm is lying with the male worm . Note the small tuberculations on the dorsal tegument of the male worm. (Right) Sections of adult in the common bile duct. Note that in different sections, different structures are visible, including the intestinal ceca, the ovary, and parts of the testis. Also note the marked proliferation of the bile duct epithelium. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f54

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.55
Figure 34.55

(Upper) Cross section of a adult worm pair in the mesenteric venule; note the smaller female worm is lying within the gynecophoral canal of the male worm (courtesy of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health). (Lower) adults in tissue. Note that the smaller female worm is lying within the gynecophoral canal of the male worm. The intestinal ceca are visible within both male and female worms. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f55

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.56
Figure 34.56

(Upper) eggs in bladder biopsy; note the large terminal spine (circle). (Lower, left) eggs in bladder biopsy, note the terminal spine (circle); (right) in liver tissue. (Courtesy of Munaf Desai, Al Qassini Hospital, Shatjah, United Arab Emirates, and the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f56

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.57
Figure 34.57

(Upper) egg in urine; note the egg shell on the left and the hatched miracidium on the right (courtesy of Aaron Hill, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center). (Lower) Stained miracidium larva, hatched egg. Note the anterior end in both images. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f57

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.58
Figure 34.58

(Upper) Two parasites within a lung cavity. Note the dark, small spots of the vitellaria just within the tegument. The dark openings represent the ceca, with clear portions of the uterus. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) (Lower) sp. from lung biopsy; H&E. Eggs measured 80 to 90 μm by 40 to 45 μm, but were not identified to species. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f58

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.59
Figure 34.59

(Upper) Adult embedded in the intestinal wall. The parasite presents as an oval to round mass limited by a spined cuticle (circle). The parasitic parenchyma is punctuated by multiple sections through the gut. The two centrally located tubular structures, separated by a light-staining muscular sucker (arrow), are part of the reproductive apparatus of the parasite. A marked inflammatory response is present in the adjacent host tissues, and fresh RBCs can be seen near the parasite. (Lower) Adult in the liver. Note that the intestinal ceca (arrow) and portions of the testes are clearly visible (T). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman; photograph courtesy of B. C. Walton.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f59

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.60
Figure 34.60

(Upper) Cross sections of adult flukes within the bile duct, which shows marked hyperplasia of epithelium. (Lower) Adult fluke in bile duct, larger magnification. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f60

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.61
Figure 34.61

adult worm. (Upper) Stained adult worm characterized by having a circumoral disk with a crown of spines surrounding the small oral sucker (courtesy of www.k-state.edu). (Lower) Enlarged image of the crown of spines (surrounding the oral sucker). The living worm is reddish gray and measures 2.5 to 6.5 mm in length by 1 to 1.35 mm in width. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f61

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.62
Figure 34.62

mesocercaria in an autopsied human liver. (Upper) Note the evidence of both the oral sucker and the acetabulum (ventral sucker) (arrow). (Lower) . Note the oral and ventral suckers (higher magnification). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman. Photograph courtesy of R. S. Freeman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f62

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.63
Figure 34.63

Malaria. Section through the cerebrum showing more congestion of the white matter (petechial hemorrhages) than of the gray (circle). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f63

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.64
Figure 34.64

(Upper) Cerebral malaria showing cerebral capillaries congested with parasitized erythrocytes (arrow). Parasitized erythrocytes stick to the endothelium and occlude the capillaries. (Lower) Note the capillary containing parasitized erythrocytes; note the brownish malarial pigment (higher magnification). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f64

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.65
Figure 34.65

Malarial pigment present in the spleen. The spleen is enlarged to about 500 g during an acute attack; it is soft, diffusely pigmented, and congested and has rounded edges. The phagocytic cells lining the splenic sinuses contain malarial pigment, free parasites, and parasitized erythrocytes. During an acute attack, malarial pigment is evenly distributed throughout the spleen. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f65

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.66
Figure 34.66

Diagram of amastigotes. (Left) amastigotes in a spleen smear. Each amastigote contains the dark, round nucleus and the bar-shaped kinetoplast. When cells are packed with amastigotes, often the complete morphology for each amastigote is not visible. (Right) amastigotes in cardiac muscle. Each amastigote contains the nucleus (round, dark) and the kinetoplast (small bar). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f66

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.67
Figure 34.67

spp. (Upper) Smear of bone marrow showing many intracellular and extracellular organisms. The amastigotes (Leishman-Donovan bodies) (circle) appear larger in smears than in tissue sections. The nucleus (longer dark object within the circle) and kinetoplast (smaller dark object within circle) are distinct in these organisms. (Lower) Single amastigote in the dermis (arrow) stained with Brown-Hopps tissue Gram stain. Note spherical nucleus and rod-shaped kinetoplast (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f67

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.68
Figure 34.68

. (Left) Section of liver showing dilated sinusoids and greatly enlarged Kupffer cells (arrow); Brown-Hopps tissue Gram stain. (Right) Numerous black amastigotes in Kuppfer's cells; note kinetoplasts (arrows); Wilder's reticulum stain. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f68

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.69
Figure 34.69

. (Upper) Transillumination of apex highlights the apical aneurysm. (Lower) The thinned ventricular wall shows muscle fiber loss and fibrosis most prominent near the aneurysm. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f69

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.70
Figure 34.70

. (Upper) Amastigotes in cardiac tissue. Note that many organisms are present; however, it is difficult to see differentiation between the nuclei and kinetoplasts. (Lower) Higher magnification of the amastigotes in cardiac muscle; note one of the kinetoplasts (looks like a small bar) (arrow). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f70

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.71
Figure 34.71

(Upper) Multiple sections of the worm in a dilated lymphatic vessel. Note the thin, threadlike structures (circle). Various lengths are seen, depending on the actual tissue cut. Although these helminths are nematodes, they are shown with the blood parasites, since blood is the primary specimen for diagnostic purposes. (Lower) At higher power, the developing microfilariae (circle) and cuticle are seen. (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f71

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.72
Figure 34.72

sp. (Upper) Microfilaria of sp. (arrow) detected in biopsied skin in the interstitium of the dermis; H&E stain. (Lower) The gut is seen as a cross section in the lower portion of the image and longitudinally in the upper portion; note the curvy microfilariae in different lengths, depending on the direction of the cut (circle). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f72

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Image of Figure 34.73
Figure 34.73

in a section of skin. Note the long, slender microfilariae (arrow). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/ or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch34.f73

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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References

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1. Binford CH,, Connor DH. 1976. Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC.
2. Katz M,, Despommier DD,, Gwadz RW. 1989. Parasitic Diseases, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
3. Kenny M. 1973. Pathoparasitology. The Upjohn Co, Kalamazoo, MI.
4. Meyers WM,, Neafie RC,, Marty AM,, Wear DJ (ed). 2000. Pathology of Infectious Diseases, vol 1. Helminthiases. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC.
5. Orihel TC,, Ash LR. 1995. Parasites in Human Tissues. American Society of Clinical Pathologists, Chicago, IL.
6. Sun T. 1988. Parasitic Disorders, 2nd ed. The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MD.
7. Ralston KS,, Petri WAJr. 2011. Tissue destruction and invasion by Entamoeba histolytica. Trends Parasitol 27:254263.
8. Dubey JR,, Johnson GC,, Bermudez A,, Suedmeyert KW,, Fritz DL. 2001. Structure of Sarcocystis neurona sarcocysts. J Parasitol 87:13231327.
9. Meissner EG,, Bennett JE,, Qvarnstron Y,, da Silva A,, Chu EY,, Tsokos M,, Gea-Banacloche J. 2012. Disseminated microsporidiosis in an immunosuppressed patient. Emerg Infect Dis 18:11551158.
10. Hocevar SN,, Padock CD,, Spak CW,, Rosenblatt R,, Diaz-Luna H,, Castillo I,, Luna S,, Friedman GC,, Antony S,, Stoddard RA,, Tiller RV,, Peterson T,, Blau DM,, Sriram RR,, da Silva A,, de Almeida M,, Benedict T,, Goldsmith CS,, Zaki SR,, Visvesvara GS,, Kuehnert MJ, Microsporidia Transplant Transmission Investigation Team. 2014. Microsporidiosis acquired through solid organ transplantation: a public health investigation. Ann Intern Med 160:213220.
11. Garg P. 2013. Microsporidia infection of the cornea—a unique and challenging disease. Cornea 32(Suppl 1):S33S38.
12. Broadhurst MJ,, Leung JM,, Kashyap V,, McCune JM,, Mahadevan U,, McKerrow JH,, Loke P. 2010. IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient. Sci Transl Med 60:60ra88.
13. Andersen EM,, Klassen-Fischer MK,, Neafie RC. 2011. Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and Invasive Arthropod Diseases: American Trypanosomiasis. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD.
14. Pinge-Suttor V,, Douglas C,, Wettstein A. 2004. Cyclospora infection masquerading as coeliac disease. Med J Aust 180:295296.
15. Lam T,, Wong M,, Chuang S. 2013. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis outbreak among athletes from Hong Kong who visited Singapore, 2012. Emerg Infect Dis 19:516517.

Tables

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TABLE 34.1

Musculature of nematodes

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.1

Histologic identification of parasites

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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TABLE 34.2

General characteristics of helminths

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.3

Staining characteristics

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.4

Nuclear and cytoplasmic stains

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.5

Carbohydrate stains

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.6

Most likely, secondary, and rare body site locations for human protozoan parasites

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34
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Appendix 34.7

Most likely, secondary, and rare body site locations for human helminth parasites

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Histologic Identification of Parasites, p 1019-1076. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch34

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