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Chapter 35 : Medically Important Arthropods

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Abstract:

  • Arthropods and their relationship to disease
    • Biological vectors of microorganisms
    • Bites and envenomation
    • Tissue invasion
    • Entomophobia and delusional infestation (parasitosis)
  • Class Insecta (insects)
    • Order Diptera (flies, mosquitoes, and midges)
    • Myiasis
    • Order Hemiptera (true bugs)
    • Order Coleoptera (beetles)
    • Order Siphonaptera (fleas)
    • Order Anoplura (sucking lice)
    • Order Mallophaga (biting and chewing lice)
    • Order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants)
    • Order Blattaria (cockroaches)
  • Class Arachnida (ticks, mites, spiders, and scorpions)
    • Subclass Acari (ticks, mites, and chiggers)
    • Subclass Araneae (spiders)
    • Subclass Scorpiones (scorpions)
  • Other arthropods
    • Class Chilopoda (centipedes)
    • Class Diplopoda (millipedes)
    • Class Crustacea (copepods, crabs, crayfish, etc.)
  • Control of arthropods of medical importance
    • Physical control
    • Biological control
    • Chemical control

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.1
Figure 35.1

Relative sizes of various arthropods. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f1

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.2
Figure 35.2

Caterpillars that sting (A and B) or cause dermatitis (C and D). (A) Io moth, ; (B) puss caterpillar, ; (C) saddleback caterpillar, ; (D) brown tail moth, . (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f2

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.3
Figure 35.3

Saddleback caterpillar ( sp.), which may cause dermatitis and necrosis. The irritant is in the barbed rigid nettling hairs. (Courtesy of R. Bessin, University of Kentucky: http://www2.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef003.asp.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f3

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.4
Figure 35.4

Caterpillars: (left) and sp. (right). The small knobs on the body segments carry the stinging hairs, which are too small to be seen in the photograph. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f4

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.5
Figure 35.5

, the puss caterpillar. (Upper) Dermatitis is caused by venom introduced into human skin by hollow larval poisonous spines and occurs 24 h after exposure. (Lower) Puss caterpillar sting; note the ecchymosis outline matches the caterpillar's spines and remains visible for several weeks. The initial sting causes intense pain for more than an hour. (From a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f5

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.6
Figure 35.6

Severe reaction to multiple stings from a fire ant, , on the arm of a male in Mississippi. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f6

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.7
Figure 35.7

Sand fly ( and spp., vectors of spp.), ∼5 mm. (Upper, illustration by Sharon Belkin; lower, color image courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f7

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.8
Figure 35.8

Blackfly ( sp., vector of and spp.), ∼4 mm. (Top, illustration by Sharon Belkin; middle, color image courtesy of A. Renz, Programme Onchocercosis, http://www.riverblindness.eu/onchocerciasis/simulium-vectors/.) (Lower, left) Eye structure of a male (holoptic); (right) eye structure of a blackfly female (dichoptic). (From : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f8

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.9
Figure 35.9

Deerfly ( sp., vector of ). (Upper) Female, 8 to 12 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Male, color image (courtesy Tom Murray, http://wiki.bugwood.org/File:Chrysops_tom_murray.JPG). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f9

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.10
Figure 35.10

Tsetse fly ( sp., vector of African trypanosomes). (Upper) Female, ∼12 mm. The characteristic “hatchet” cell is seen within the circle. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) (Lower) Color image (courtesy of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Veterinaria, Daniele Focosi, http://www.ufrgs.br/imunovet/molecular_immunology/sitemap.html). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f10

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.11
Figure 35.11

Stablefly ( sp.), 6 to 15 mm long. (Left photograph courtesy of Duane J. Gubler, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; right image courtesy of Jim Kalisch, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Dept of Entomology, http://entomology.unl.edu/images/muscidflies/.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f11

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.12
Figure 35.12

Biting midge ( sp., vector of spp.), 1 to 2.5 mm (usually 1 to 4 mm long). (Upper, illustration by Sharon Belkin, adapted from Faust EC, Russell RF, June RC [ed], , 8th ed, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1970; lower, color image courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f12

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.13
Figure 35.13

(Upper) Mosquito, ∼4 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Female mosquito taking a blood meal (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f13

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.14
Figure 35.14

Mosquito larvae. (Upper) must lie parallel to the water to obtain oxygen through a breathing opening. (Lower) has a breathing tube, so that it lies almost perpendicular or at an angle to the surface of the water. Note other physiological differences between and . (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f14

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.15
Figure 35.15

Myiasis. (Top) Eye infection with fly larva (). (Middle and bottom left) Removal of larva. (Bottom right) larva; note the spines (dark bands) (courtesy of ). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f15

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.16
Figure 35.16

() sp. (blowfly). (Upper) Adult fly (courtesy of Derrick Ditchburn, http://www.dereila.ca/whispers/flies3.html). (Lower) Larva prior to pupation. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f16

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.17
Figure 35.17

Flesh fly (), causes myiasis in humans. (Left, adapted from James MT, U.S. Department of Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 631, 1947; right, color image courtesy of Derrick Ditchburn, http://www.dereila.ca/whispers/flies3.html.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f17

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.18
Figure 35.18

Myiasis. Nodule from the pubis of a 24-year-old woman. She was bitten while in a banana grove in Colombia 2 weeks before this nodule was removed. The fly larva is coiled in a cyst that communicates with the surface. The cyst and tract are lined in part by squamous epithelium. This lesion is characteristic of the “warble” or boil of , although the species could not be determined from the section studies. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f18

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.19
Figure 35.19

Myiasis. Higher magnification of the lesion in Fig. 35.18 . The larva is surrounded by an intense inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. Magnification, ×9.7. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f19

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.20
Figure 35.20

Myiasis. A portion of the spiracular system of the larva shown in Fig. 35.18 and 35.19 . Note the distinct tracheal rings. Magnification, ×440. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f20

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.21
Figure 35.21

Myiasis. Brain of a child in Panama who died of malaria. There were several warbles on the scalp. The larva in the cavity entered through a 4-mm hole that it had bored through the anterior fontanelle. The shape and spines of the larva are consistent with . (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f21

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.22
Figure 35.22

Fly larva removed from a man living in Lynchburg, VA. The patient had a pruritic “mosquito bite” on the chest, which became red and then enlarged to about 4 cm. A “head” developed, from which the patient expressed this larva. The larva was identified as sp. Magnification, ×22. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f22

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.23
Figure 35.23

Bedbug ( sp.). (Left) Adult, 5 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on an illustration from Najarian HH, , The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, MD, 1967). (Right) Color image. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f23

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.24
Figure 35.24

Triatomid bug ( sp.). (Upper) Adult bug, 25 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Color image of , the most abundant triatomine species in southern Arizona (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, photograph by C. Hedgcock). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f24

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.25
Figure 35.25

Romaña's sign; the assumption is that this is the bite site of the vector, the triatomid bug; unilateral conjunctivitis, palpebral and periorbital edema (courtesy of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f25

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.26
Figure 35.26

Blister beetles. (Upper) (A) Margined (); (B) ash gray () (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) , black blister beetle (courtesy of Bruce Marlin, www.cirrusimage.com/beetles.htm). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f26

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.27
Figure 35.27

(Top) , a beetle of Central America which elaborates a vesiculating toxin. (Row 2) Color image of sp.; magnification, ×4. (Row 3) Contact dermatitis from staphylinid beetle, sp., on the body of a man in Ethiopia. (Bottom) Dermatitis after crushing a beetle on the skin. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f27

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.28
Figure 35.28

Flea. (Upper) Adult flea, 1.5 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Color image (from : a cooperative collection prepared and/or edited by H. Zaiman). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f28

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.29
Figure 35.29

Flea (, chigoe flea). (Top) Adult flea, 1.5 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Middle) Color image. (Bottom) Diagram of female flea, non-gravid (left) and gravid/full of eggs (right). (Middle and bottom, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photographs.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f29

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.30
Figure 35.30

Tungiasis. Multiple and irregularly confluent tunga craters on the foot of an African patient. The nonpressure areas (arch and between the toes) are the most severely involved. The weight-bearing portion of the sole tends to be spared. This patient died of tetanus. Note the lesions are healing and crusted. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f30

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.31
Figure 35.31

Body louse ( sp.), 1.5 mm (left, illustration by Sharon Belkin; right, courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f31

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.32
Figure 35.32

Crab louse ( sp.). (Top) Adult, 1 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on an illustration from Najarian HH, , The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MD, 1967). (Middle) Adult female ; note arrow pointing to the egg. (Bottom) Adult male (Color images courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f32

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.33
Figure 35.33

Head louse, (Left) Egg (nit) on hair shaft with a first-instar nymph starting to hatch out. (Right) Empty shell of the nit from the left image, the nymph having left. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f33

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.34
Figure 35.34

(A) Bee; (B) fire ant; (C) wasp. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f34

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.35
Figure 35.35

Present and potential ranges of imported fire ant infestation (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library, U.S. Department of Agriculture). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f35

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.36
Figure 35.36

Typical mound of the fire ant; the height can reach 2 ft. Often the mound looks like the dirt has just been tilled. (Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f36

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.37
Figure 35.37

Typical flat mound of the harvester ant; the flat area with no vegetation can range from 3 to 9 ft. (Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f37

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.38
Figure 35.38

American cockroach (). (Upper, illustration by Sharon Belkin; lower, courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f38

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.39
Figure 35.39

(Left) Soft tick, ∼12 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on an illustration from Najarian HH, , The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MD, 1967). (Right) Soft tick; note the mouth parts can normally be seen only from the ventral side (courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f39

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.40
Figure 35.40

Hard tick, 4 to 10 mm. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on an illustration from Najarian HH, , The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MD, 1967.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f40

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.41
Figure 35.41

Hard ticks: (left) female; (right) male. (Top) , American dog tick. (Middle) , Argentina. (Bottom) . (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f41

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.42
Figure 35.42

spp. Diagram of the female (A) and male (B) adult ticks and the nymph (C) (bar, 3 mm). (Illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on information in reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f42

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.43
Figure 35.43

(Left) . The scutum (the dorsal shield, which is small in the female and almost covers the dorsal surface in the male) and the terminal capitulum, which is attached to the anterior end of the body of . Note that the scutum is nearly circular, with punctuations larger peripherally. The cornua (arrowhead) is small but definite for . (Right) . Scutum and terminal capitulum. Note that the scutum is oval with uniformly distributed small punctuations (arrowhead), and the cornua is absent. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on information in reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f43

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.44
Figure 35.44

(Upper) : (left) adult female; (right) adult male. Note that there are no white markings on the dorsal surface and no eyes or festoons ( Table 35.6 ). (Lower) : (left) adult female; (right) adult male. Note the mouthparts are almost identical, but color variation is less common with . (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f44

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.45
Figure 35.45

Itch mite ( sp.). (Top) Adult mite, ventral surface, ∼0.25 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin, based on an illustration from Najarian HH, , The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, MD, 1967). (Bottom, left) Adult mite, dorsal surface; (right) adult mite, ventral surface; note the legs are now visible. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f45

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.46
Figure 35.46

Scabies of hand. Lesions are complicated by scratching and secondary bacterial infection. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f46

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.47
Figure 35.47

Scabies of buttocks of a Brazilian child. There is evidence of scratching and secondary bacterial infection. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f47

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.48
Figure 35.48

Crusted scabies over the buttocks of a 19-year-old Congolese man. The patient was chronically ill, suggesting immunosuppression. Lesions are papulosquamous and excoriated. Scaling and crusting were severe about the elbows and from the lower trunk to the knees. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f48

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.49
Figure 35.49

mites in a skin biopsy, stained with hematoxylin and eosin. An adult (green arrow) and an egg (blue arrow) are visible. Note the presence of cuticular spines (black arrow) on the adult. (Courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f49

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.50
Figure 35.50

Follicle mites. (Upper) ; (lower) . Note the rudimentary legs. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f50

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.51
Figure 35.51

Section of sebaceous gland showing sp. in hair follicle. Note the short anterior gnathosoma (gn), podosoma with four pairs of legs (po), and long posterior opisthosoma (op). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f51

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.52
Figure 35.52

Black widow spider ( sp.), adult, 20 mm. (Upper, illustration by Sharon Belkin; lower, courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f52

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.53
Figure 35.53

Violin spider ( sp.). (Upper) Violin/brown recluse spider, 9 to 15 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Note the violin image in the head area (arrow). (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology photograph.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f53

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.54
Figure 35.54

Tissue necrosis caused by sp. (brown recluse, violin spider); note the progression of the wound from day 1 to approximately the end of the year (upper left to lower right). doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f54

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.55
Figure 35.55

Hobo spider, 45 mm long with distinct chevron stripes on the abdomen. doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f55

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.56
Figure 35.56

Funnel web spider, 45 to 60 mm, large, dark colored. (Courtesy of Museum Victoria, photographer Alan Henderson, www.museumvictoria.com.au.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f56

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.57
Figure 35.57

Tarantula (note the hairy legs). (Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f57

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.58
Figure 35.58

Scorpion. (Upper) 30 to 40 mm (illustration by Sharon Belkin). (Lower) Although painful, scorpion stings are rarely fatal. Exceptions are infants and children who sustain multiple stings. The venom is contained in two venom glands in the tail. (Courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f58

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.59
Figure 35.59

Centipede. (Upper) 30 to 40 mm; some may be much larger (illustration by Sharon Belkin).(Lower) . This is the largest-bodied centipede in North America, growing up to 7 inches or so. It ranges from Kansas and southern Missouri to Louisiana, westward through Texas and New Mexico/eastern Colorado to the Colorado River in Arizona, and southward about one-fourth of the way into Mexico. (Photograph courtesy of Seth Peterson, http://bugguide.net/node/view/50108.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f59

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Image of Figure 35.60
Figure 35.60

Millipede, 30 to 40 mm. (Upper, illustration by Sharon Belkin; lower, courtesy of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) doi:10.1128/9781555819002.ch35.f60

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 35.1

Classification of medically important arthropods

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.2

Vector-borne human infections

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.3

Summary of direct effects of arthropods on humans and domestic animals

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.4

Diptera of medical importance in myiasis

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.5

Species infecting the skin, eyes, nose, and ears in myiasis; examples of spiracles (stigmal plates)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.6

Identification of the more common hard and soft ticks. (Illustration by Sharon Belkin; adapted from National Communicable Disease Center Pictorial Keys, 1969.)

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.7

Differences between hard ticks and soft ticks

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 35.8

Descriptions of some of the more common hard ticks found in the United States

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
Medically important arthropods and their potential effect on humans

Medically important arthropods and their potential effect on humans

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
Common arthropods: diagnostic procedures and recommended therapy

Common arthropods: diagnostic procedures and recommended therapy

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
Common terms used in discussing arthropods

Common terms used in discussing arthropods

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
Dichotomous key to some of the arthropods important in human disease and/or disease transmission

Dichotomous key to some of the arthropods important in human disease and/or disease transmission

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35
Generic image for table
Key to the important myiasis-producing larvaea

Key to the important myiasis-producing larvae

Citation: Garcia L. 2016. Medically Important Arthropods, p 1077-1133. In Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819002.ch35

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