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Chapter 2 : Human Immunodeficiency Virus

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2) are enveloped RNA viruses that are members of the genus and the family Retroviridae. HIV-1 is further divided into four groups; three of these originated from chimpanzee simian immunodeficiency virus and are designated group M (major)—responsible for the majority of the worldwide epidemic, group O (outlier), and group N (nonmajor and nonoutlier). Each group phylogenetically correlates with three separate transmission events ( ). The fourth, group P, has been recently identified and is closely related to a gorilla simian immunodeficiency virus ( ). Within group M there are nine different subtypes and more than 40 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), which together lead to enormous viral genetic diversity. This variability plays an important role in the design and interpretation of viral load and resistance assays, and it provides clues to epidemiology and transmission of HIV-1. HIV-2 is a much smaller epidemic than HIV-1 and has its origins in simian immunodeficiency virus sooty mangabey () with at least eight distinct transmissions to humans. Correct diagnosis of HIV-1 versus HIV-2 is critical as there are distinct differences in response to antiretroviral therapy.

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Figure 1

Life cycle of HIV-1. Reprinted from reference , with permission.

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Figure 2

Timeline for detection of virus using different assays, as compared to Western blot.

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Figure 3

CDC and Association of Public Health Laboratories guideline for diagnosis of HIV infection.

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Tables

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Table 1

Examples of HIV-1 serologic assays

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Table 2

Second-generation rapid HIV tests and second-generation rapid differentiation tests

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Table 3

FDA-approved real-time PCR tests for quantification of HIV-1 RNA

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015
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Table 4

Selected assays for resistance testing

Citation: Armstrong W, Guarner J, Kraft C, Caliendo A. 2016. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, p 53-68. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0024-2015

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