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Chapter 20 : Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology

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Abstract:

A diverse community makes up the normal healthy microbiota in humans, and anaerobic bacteria are the primary component ( ). A wide variety of different environments in the human body support complex microbial communities comprising both obligate and facultative anaerobes ( ). At all body sites where anaerobes are part of the indigenous microbiota, obligate anaerobes greatly outnumber facultative anaerobes by a factor of 10 up to 1,000 times ( Table 1 ) ( ). Obligate anaerobes are therefore the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces. Microbial-community analysis of healthy human intestinal microbiota also reveals a rich and diverse array of anaerobes including spp., members of the former group (i.e., , , and ), other species, and spp., as well as a wide array of anaerobes that are less clinically encountered ( ). Under normal circumstances, intestinal anaerobes are not pathogenic but are essential for preventing overgrowth of opportunistic organisms or infection with pathogenic bacteria. Colonization resistance against acquisition of enteric pathogens (i.e., and ) and hospital-acquired antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., vancomycin-resistant enterococci and ) is provided by the presence of healthy normal bacteria that prevent gastrointestinal colonization by exogenous bacteria ( ).

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Anaerobic collection devices. BBL Port-A-Cul Transport System (BD Diagnostics); BD Eswab (BD Diagnostics); BBL Anaerobic Vacutainer Specimen Collector (BD Diagnostics); AnaeroGro – Prereduced anaerobic-culture medium (Hardy Diagnostics); Anaerobic Tissue Transport Surgery Pack (Anaerobic Systems); Starplex Anaerobic Transport Medium (Fisher Scientific); Copan Liquid Amies Elution Swab (Eswab) (Copan Diagnostics Inc.); Anaerobic Transport Medium – PRAS (Anaerobic Systems).

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Anaerobic culture-incubation systems. BBL GasPak Plus and Anaerobic Jar (BD Diagnostics); Anoxomat Mark II System and jars (Advanced Instruments, Inc.); Different types of anaerobic chambers, including systems that require the use of gloves to access the chamber (top and middle images are from Plas-Labs and Bactron [ShelLabs]), and gloveless systems (bottom image) (Coy).

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Figure 3

Antibiotic-susceptibility disk testing – Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria.

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Antibiotic-susceptibility disk testing – Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Clostridial-necrotizing skin and soft-tissue infection. .

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Yellow pseudomembranes of colitis. .

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Three-step testing algorithm for laboratory diagnosis of infection. Adapted from reference ( ) and reprinted with permission.

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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Figure 8

C. DIFF QUIK CHEK Complete Assay. Illustration shows both GDH- and toxin-positive samples on the left, and a GDH-positive but toxin-negative sample on the right; see product monograph (TechLab, Blacksburg, VA, USA. See http://www.techlab.com/diagnostics/c-difficile/c-diff-quik-chek-complete-30525c-30550c-t30525c-t20550c/)

Citation: Church D. 2016. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology, p 493-535. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0015-2015
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