1887

Chapter 8 : Human Papillomavirus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human Papillomavirus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819040/9781555819033_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819040/9781555819033_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

Human papillomavirus (HPV), a member of the family, is a small (8kb), nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV has a predilection for infecting cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells ( ). Infection with HPV is associated with a wide range of pathology. HPV is the etiological factor in benign cutaneous warts and juvenile respiratory papillomatosis, as well as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to cancer, and invasive carcinoma ( ). Harald zur Hausen, a German virologist, was the first to describe the association of HPV and cervical cancer in the 1970s ( ). It is now understood that HPV is necessary in the development of cervical cancer and is also associated with carcinoma of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx ( ).

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Algorithm for diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Algorithm for screening and diagnosis of anal cancer in high-risk groups. There are currently no formal recommendations for routine anal cancer screening in the United States.

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Algorithm for screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer in immunosuppressed women. For HIV-infected women ( ), screen at 6 months, 12 months, then annually; consider screening within 1 year of onset of sexual activity ( ); some experts would recommend continued cytology screening every 6 months in women with CD4 counts less than 200/mm or a history of HPV infection. For immunosuppressed women without HIV, annual cervical cytology screening is recommended ( ).

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819040.chap8
1. Groves IJ,, Coleman N . 2015. Pathogenesis of human papillomavirus-associated mucosal disease. J Pathol 235 : 527 538.[CrossRef]
2. Doorbar J,, Quint W,, Banks L,, Bravo IG,, Stoler M,, Broker TR,, Stanley MA . 2012. The biology and life-cycle of human papillomaviruses. Vaccine 30( Suppl 5) : F55 F70.[CrossRef]
3. zur Hausen H . 2002. Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer 2 : 342 350.[CrossRef]
4. zur Hausen H . 2009. Papillomaviruses in the causation of human cancers – a brief historical account. Virology 384 : 260 265.[CrossRef]
5. Forman D,, de Martel C,, Lacey CJ,, Soerjomataram I,, Lortet-Tieulent J,, Bruni L,, Vignat J,, Ferlay J,, Bray F,, Plummer M,, Franceschi S . 2012. Global burden of human papillomavirus and related diseases. Vaccine 30( Suppl 5) : F12 F23.[CrossRef]
6. Dunne EF,, Park IU . 2013. HPV and HPV-associated diseases. Infect Dis Clin North Am 27 : 765 778.[CrossRef]
7. Egawa N,, Egawa K,, Griffin H,, Doorbar J . 2015. Human papillomaviruses; epithelial tropisms, and the development of neoplasia. Viruses 7 : 3863 3890.[CrossRef]
8. Stanley M . 2008. Immunobiology of HPV and HPV vaccines. Gynecol Oncol 109( Suppl) : S15 S21.[CrossRef]
9. Arbyn M,, Tommasino M,, Depuydt C,, Dillner J . 2014. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer? J Pathol 234 : 431 435.[CrossRef]
10. Halec G,, Alemany L,, Lloveras B,, Schmitt M,, Alejo M,, Bosch FX,, Tous S,, Klaustermeier JE,, Guimerà N,, Grabe N,, Lahrmann B,, Gissmann L,, Quint W,, Bosch FX,, de Sanjose S,, Pawlita M , Retrospective International Survey and HPV Time Trends Study Group . 2014. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer. J Pathol 234 : 441 451.[CrossRef]
11. Finnen RL,, Erickson KD,, Chen XS,, Garcea RL . 2003. Interactions between papillomavirus L1 and L2 capsid proteins. J Virol 77 : 4818 4826.[CrossRef]
12. Doorbar J . 2006. Molecular biology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Clin Sci (Lond) 110 : 525 541.[CrossRef]
13. Van Tine BA,, Dao LD,, Wu SY,, Sonbuchner TM,, Lin BY,, Zou N,, Chiang CM,, Broker TR,, Chow LT . 2004. Human papillomavirus (HPV) origin-binding protein associates with mitotic spindles to enable viral DNA partitioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 : 4030 4035.[CrossRef]
14. Middleton K,, Peh W,, Southern S,, Griffin H,, Sotlar K,, Nakahara T,, El-Sherif A,, Morris L,, Seth R,, Hibma M,, Jenkins D,, Lambert P,, Coleman N,, Doorbar J . 2003. Organization of human papillomavirus productive cycle during neoplastic progression provides a basis for selection of diagnostic markers. J Virol 77 : 10186 10201.[CrossRef]
15. Stanley M . 2006. Immune responses to human papillomavirus. Vaccine 24( Suppl 1) : S16 S22.[CrossRef]
16. Schiffman M,, Wentzensen N . 2013. Human papillomavirus infection and the multistage carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22 : 553 560.[CrossRef]
17. Klingelhutz AJ,, Roman A . 2012. Cellular transformation by human papillomaviruses: lessons learned by comparing high- and low-risk viruses. Virology 424 : 77 98.[CrossRef]
18. DiMaio D,, Petti LM . 2013. The E5 proteins. Virology 445 : 99 114.[CrossRef]
19. Kadaja M,, Silla T,, Ustav E,, Ustav M . 2009. Papillomavirus DNA replication – from initiation to genomic instability. Virology 384 : 360 368.[CrossRef]
20. Maglennon GA,, McIntosh PB,, Doorbar J . 2014. Immunosuppression facilitates the reactivation of latent papillomavirus infections. J Virol 88 : 710 716.[CrossRef]
21. Satterwhite CL,, Torrone E,, Meites E,, Dunne EF,, Mahajan R,, Ocfemia MC,, Su J,, Xu F,, Weinstock H . 2013. Sexually transmitted infections among US women and men: prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008. Sex Transm Dis 40 : 187 193.[CrossRef]
22. Hoy T,, Singhal PK,, Willey VJ,, Insinga RP . 2009. Assessing incidence and economic burden of genital warts with data from a US commercially insured population. Curr Med Res Opin 25 : 2343 2351.[CrossRef]
23. Jemal A,, Simard EP,, Dorell C,, Noone AM,, Markowitz LE,, Kohler B,, Eheman C,, Saraiya M,, Bandi P,, Saslow D,, Cronin KA,, Watson M,, Schiffman M,, Henley SJ,, Schymura MJ,, Anderson RN,, Yankey D,, Edwards BK . 2013. Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. J Natl Cancer Inst 105 : 175 201.[CrossRef]
24. Palefsky J . 2007. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected persons. Top HIV Med 15 : 130 133.
25. Denny LA,, Franceschi S,, de Sanjosé S,, Heard I,, Moscicki AB,, Palefsky J . 2012. Human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus and immunosuppression. Vaccine 30( Suppl 5) : F168 F174.[CrossRef]
26. Freiberger D,, Lewis L,, Helfand L . 2015. Human papillomavirus-related high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the esophagus, skin, and cervix in an adolescent lung transplant recipient: a case report and literature review. Transpl Infect Dis 17 : 98 102.[CrossRef]
27. Palefsky JM . 1997. Cutaneous and genital HPV-associated lesions in HIV-infected patients. Clin Dermatol 15 : 439 447.[CrossRef]
28. Gormley RH,, Kovarik CL . 2009. Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 6 : 130 138.[CrossRef]
29. Partridge JM,, Koutsky LA . 2006. Genital human papillomavirus infection in men. Lancet Infect Dis 6 : 21 31.[CrossRef]
30. Wheless L,, Jacks S,, Mooneyham Potter KA,, Leach BC,, Cook J . 2014. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: more than the immune system. J Am Acad Dermatol 71 : 359 365.[CrossRef]
31. Gaiser MR,, Textor S,, Senger T,, Schädlich L,, Waterboer T,, Kaufmann AM,, Süsal C,, Pawlita M,, Enk AH,, Gissmann L,, Lonsdorf AS . 2015. Evaluation of specific humoral and cellular immune responses against the major capsid L1 protein of cutaneous wart-associated alpha-papillomaviruses in solid organ transplant recipients. J Dermatol Sci 77 : 37 45.[CrossRef]
32. Bouwes Bavinck JN,, Feltkamp M,, Struijk L,, ter Schegget J . 2001. Human papillomavirus infection and skin cancer risk in organ transplant recipients. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 6 : 207 211.[CrossRef]
33. Bouwes Bavinck JN,, Berkhout RJ . 1997. HPV infections and immunosuppression. Clin Dermatol 15 : 427 437.[CrossRef]
34. Patel T,, Morrison LK,, Rady P,, Tyring S . 2010. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis and susceptibility to HPV. Dis Markers 29 : 199 206.[CrossRef]
35. Rizzo JD,, Curtis RE,, Socié G,, Sobocinski KA,, Gilbert E,, Landgren O,, Travis LB,, Travis WD,, Flowers ME,, Friedman DL,, Horowitz MM,, Wingard JR,, Deeg HJ . 2009. Solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 113 : 1175 1183.[CrossRef]
36. Gewirtzman A,, Bartlett B,, Tyring S . 2008. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis and human papilloma virus. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21 : 141 146.[CrossRef]
37. Rogers HD,, Macgregor JL,, Nord KM,, Tyring S,, Rady P,, Engler DE,, Grossman ME . 2009. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis. J Am Acad Dermatol 60 : 315 320.[CrossRef]
38. Parkin DM,, Bray F,, Ferlay J,, Pisani P . 2005. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55 : 74 108.[CrossRef]
39. Beachler DC,, D'Souza G . 2013. Oral human papillomavirus infection and head and neck cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Curr Opin Oncol 25 : 503 510.[CrossRef]
40. Beachler DC,, Weber KM,, Margolick JB,, Strickler HD,, Cranston RD,, Burk RD,, Wiley DJ,, Minkoff H,, Reddy S,, Stammer EE,, Gillison ML,, D’Souza G . 2012. Risk factors for oral HPV infection among a high prevalence population of HIV-positive and at-risk HIV-negative adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21 : 122 133.[CrossRef]
41. Gillison ML,, Shah KV . 2001. Human papillomavirus-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: mounting evidence for an etiologic role for human papillomavirus in a subset of head and neck cancers. Curr Opin Oncol 13 : 183 188.[CrossRef]
42. Madeleine MM,, Finch JL,, Lynch CF,, Goodman MT,, Engels EA . 2013. HPV-related cancers after solid organ transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant 13 : 3202 3209.[CrossRef]
43. Katz J,, Islam MN,, Bhattacharyya I,, Sandow P,, Moreb JS . 2014. Oral squamous cell carcinoma positive for p16/human papilloma virus in post allogeneic stem cell transplantation: 2 cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 118 : e74 e78.[CrossRef]
44. Johnson LG,, Madeleine MM,, Newcomer LM,, Schwartz SM,, Daling JR . 2004. Anal cancer incidence and survival: the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results experience, 1973-2000. Cancer 101 : 281 288.[CrossRef]
45. Tong WW,, Hillman RJ,, Kelleher AD,, Grulich AE,, Carr A . 2014. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-infected adults. HIV Med 15 : 65 76.[CrossRef]
46. Darwich L,, Videla S,, Cañadas MP,, Piñol M,, García-Cuyàs F,, Vela S,, Molina-López RA,, Coll J,, Sirera G,, Clotet B,, Can Ruti H , Can Ruti HIV-HPV Team . 2013. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in anal cytological and histological specimens from HIV-infected men who have sex with men and men who have sex with women. Dis Colon Rectum 56 : 1043 1052.[CrossRef]
47. Silverberg MJ,, Lau B,, Justice AC,, Engels E,, Gill MJ,, Goedert JJ,, Kirk GD,, D’Souza G,, Bosch RJ,, Brooks JT,, Napravnik S,, Hessol NA,, Jacobson LP,, Kitahata MM,, Klein MB,, Moore RD,, Rodriguez B,, Rourke SB,, Saag MS,, Sterling TR,, Gebo KA,, Press N,, Martin JN,, Dubrow R , North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of IeDEA . 2012. Risk of anal cancer in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in North America. Clin Infect Dis 54 : 1026 1034.[CrossRef]
48. Roka S,, Rasoul-Rockenschaub S,, Roka J,, Kirnbauer R,, Mühlbacher F,, Salat A . 2004. Prevalence of anal HPV infection in solid-organ transplant patients prior to immunosuppression. Transpl Int 17 : 366 369.[CrossRef]
49. Patel HS,, Silver AR,, Northover JM . 2007. Anal cancer in renal transplant patients. Int J Colorectal Dis 22 : 1 5.[CrossRef]
50. Hernandez BY,, Barnholtz-Sloan J,, German RR,, Giuliano A,, Goodman MT,, King JB,, Negoita S,, Villalon-Gomez JM . 2008. Burden of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in the United States, 1998-2003. Cancer 113( Suppl) : 2883 2891.[CrossRef]
51. Hernandez BY,, Goodman MT,, Unger ER,, Steinau M,, Powers A,, Lynch CF,, Cozen W,, Saber MS,, Peters ES,, Wilkinson EJ,, Copeland G,, Hopenhayn C,, Huang Y,, Watson M,, Altekruse SF,, Lyu C,, Saraiya M , HPV Typing of Cancer Workgroup . 2014. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based United States population. Front Oncol 4 : 9. [CrossRef]
52. Backes DM,, Kurman RJ,, Pimenta JM,, Smith JS . 2009. Systematic review of human papillomavirus prevalence in invasive penile cancer. Cancer Cause Control 20 : 449 457.[CrossRef]
53. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans . 2012. Biological agents. Volume 100 B. A review of human carcinogens. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 100( Pt B) : 1441.
54. International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer . 2007. Comparison of risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 8,097 women with squamous cell carcinoma and 1,374 women with adenocarcinoma from 12 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 120 : 885891.[CrossRef]
55. Dugué PA,, Rebolj M,, Garred P,, Lynge E . 2013. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 13 : 29 42.[CrossRef]
56. Nguyen ML,, Flowers L . 2013. Cervical cancer screening in immunocompromised women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 40 : 339 357.[CrossRef]
57. Brickman C,, Palefsky JM . 2015. Human papillomavirus in the HIV-infected host: epidemiology and pathogenesis in the antiretroviral era. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 12 : 6 15.[CrossRef]
58. Wang Y,, Brinch L,, Jebsen P,, Tanbo T,, Kirschner R . 2012. A clinical study of cervical dysplasia in long-term survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Tr 18 : 747 753.[CrossRef]
59. Savani BN,, Stratton P,, Shenoy A,, Kozanas E,, Goodman S,, Barrett AJ . 2008. Increased risk of cervical dysplasia in long-term survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation—implications for screening and HPV vaccination. Biol Blood Marrow Tr 14 : 1072 1075.[CrossRef]
60. Wang CY,, Brodland DG,, Su WP . 1995. Skin cancers associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 70 : 766 772.[CrossRef]
61. Reusser NM,, Downing C,, Guidry J,, Tyring SK . 2015. HPV carcinomas in immunocompromised patients. J Clin Med 4 : 260 281.[CrossRef]
62. Paradisi A,, Waterboer T,, Sampogna F,, Tabolli S,, Simoni S,, Pawlita M,, Abeni D . 2011. Seropositivity for human papillomavirus and incidence of subsequent squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the skin in patients with a previous nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol 165 : 782 791.[CrossRef]
63. Blessing K,, McLaren KM,, Benton EC,, Barr BB,, Bunney MH,, Smith IW,, Beveridge GW . 1989. Histopathology of skin lesions in renal allograft recipients—an assessment of viral features and dysplasia. Histopathology 14 : 129 139.[CrossRef]
64. Gutiérrez-Dalmau A,, Revuelta I,, Ferrer B,, Mascaró JM Jr,, Oppenheimer F,, Albanell J,, Campistol JM . 2010. Distinct immunohistochemical phenotype of nonmelanoma skin cancers between renal transplant and immunocompetent populations. Transplantation 90 : 986 992.[CrossRef]
65. Pfefferle R,, Marcuzzi GP,, Akgül B,, Kasper HU,, Schulze F,, Haase I,, Wickenhauser C,, Pfister H . 2008. The human papillomavirus type 8 E2 protein induces skin tumors in transgenic mice. J Invest Dermatol 128 : 2310 2315.[CrossRef]
66. US Preventive Services Task Force . 2013. Screening for Oral Cancer: Final Recommendation Statement. AHRQ Publication No. 13-05186-EF-2. Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality, Rockville MD.
67. Rethman MP,, Carpenter W,, Cohen EE,, Epstein J,, Evans CA,, Flaitz CM,, Graham FJ,, Hujoel PP,, Kalmar JR,, Koch WM,, Lambert PM,, Lingen MW,, Oettmeier BW Jr,, Patton LL,, Perkins D,, Reid BC,, Sciubba JJ,, Tomar SL,, Wyatt AD Jr,, Aravamudhan K,, Frantsve-Hawley J,, Cleveland JL,, Meyer DM , American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs Expert Panel on Screening for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas . 2012. Evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding screening for oral squamous cell carcinomas. Tex Dent J 129 : 491 507.
68. Mirghani H,, Amen F,, Moreau F,, Guigay J,, Ferchiou M,, Melkane AE,, Hartl DM,, Lacau St Guily J . 2014. Human papilloma virus testing in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: what the clinician should know. Oral Oncol 50 : 1 9.[CrossRef]
69. Weinberger PM,, Yu Z,, Haffty BG,, Kowalski D,, Harigopal M,, Brandsma J,, Sasaki C,, Joe J,, Camp RL,, Rimm DL,, Psyrri A . 2006. Molecular classification identifies a subset of human papillomavirus--associated oropharyngeal cancers with favorable prognosis. J Clin Oncol 24 : 736 747.[CrossRef]
70. Begum S,, Gillison ML,, Ansari-Lari MA,, Shah K,, Westra WH . 2003. Detection of human papillomavirus in cervical lymph nodes: a highly effective strategy for localizing site of tumor origin. Clin Cancer Res 9 : 6469 6475.
71. Syrjänen S . 2005. Human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck cancer. J Clin Virol 32( Suppl 1) : S59 S66.[CrossRef]
72. Kerr DA,, Pitman MB,, Sweeney B,, Arpin RN III,, Wilbur DC,, Faquin WC . 2014. Performance of the Roche cobas 4800 high-risk human papillomavirus test in cytologic preparations of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer Cytopathol 122 : 167 174.[CrossRef]
73. Shi W,, Kato H,, Perez-Ordonez B,, Pintilie M,, Huang S,, Hui A,, O’Sullivan B,, Waldron J,, Cummings B,, Kim J,, Ringash J,, Dawson LA,, Gullane P,, Siu L,, Gillison M,, Liu FF . 2009. Comparative prognostic value of HPV16 E6 mRNA compared with in situ hybridization for human oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 27 : 6213 6221.[CrossRef]
74. Lewis JS Jr,, Thorstad WL,, Chernock RD,, Haughey BH,, Yip JH,, Zhang Q,, El-Mofty SK . 2010. p16 positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an entity with a favorable prognosis regardless of tumor HPV status. Am J Surg Pathol 34 : 1088 1096.[CrossRef]
75. Schache AG,, Liloglou T,, Risk JM,, Filia A,, Jones TM,, Sheard J,, Woolgar JA,, Helliwell TR,, Triantafyllou A,, Robinson M,, Sloan P,, Harvey-Woodworth C,, Sisson D,, Shaw RJ . 2011. Evaluation of human papilloma virus diagnostic testing in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic discrimination. Clin Cancer Res 17 : 6262 6271.[CrossRef]
76. Westra WH . 2012. Detection of human papillomavirus in clinical samples. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 45 : 765 777.[CrossRef]
77. Lewis JS Jr,, Khan RA,, Masand RP,, Chernock RD,, Zhang Q,, Al-Naief NS,, Muller S,, McHugh JB,, Prasad ML,, Brandwein-Gensler M,, Perez-Ordonez B,, El-Mofty SK . 2012. Recognition of nonkeratinizing morphology in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma - a prospective cohort and interobserver variability study. Histopathology 60 : 427 436 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2011.04092.x. [CrossRef]
78. Bleeker MC,, Heideman DA,, Snijders PJ,, Horenblas S,, Dillner J,, Meijer CJ . 2009. Penile cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention. World J Urol 27 : 141 150.[CrossRef]
79. Mentrikoski MJ,, Stelow EB,, Culp S,, Frierson HF Jr,, Cathro HP . 2014. Histologic and immunohistochemical assessment of penile carcinomas in a North American population. Am J Surg Pathol 38 : 1340 1348.[CrossRef]
80. Chaux A,, Cubilla AL,, Haffner MC,, Lecksell KL,, Sharma R,, Burnett AL,, Netto GJ . 2014. Combining routine morphology, p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus infection in penile carcinomas: a tissue microarray study using classifier performance analyses. Urol Oncol 32 : 171 177.[CrossRef]
81. Gunia S,, Erbersdobler A,, Hakenberg OW,, Koch S,, May M . 2012. p16(INK4a) is a marker of good prognosis for primary invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a multi-institutional study. J Urol 187 : 899 907.[CrossRef]
82. Ferrándiz-Pulido C,, Masferrer E,, de Torres I,, Lloveras B,, Hernandez-Losa J,, Mojal S,, Salvador C,, Morote J,, Ramon y Cajal S,, Pujol RM,, Garcia-Patos V,, Toll A . 2013. Identification and genotyping of human papillomavirus in a Spanish cohort of penile squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with pathologic subtypes, p16(INK4a) expression, and prognosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 68 : 73 82.[CrossRef]
83. Djajadiningrat RS,, Jordanova ES,, Kroon BK,, van Werkhoven E,, de Jong J,, Pronk DTM,, Snijders PJF,, Horenblas S,, Heideman DAM . 2015. Human papillomavirus prevalence in invasive penile cancer and association with clinical outcome. J Urol 193 : 526 531.[CrossRef]
84. Bezerra SM,, Chaux A,, Ball MW,, Faraj SF,, Munari E,, Gonzalez-Roiban N,, Sharma R,, Bivalacqua TJ,, Burnett AL,, Netto GJ . 2015. Human papillomavirus infection and immunohistochemical p16 INK4a expression as predictors of outcome in penile squamous cell carcinomas. Hum Pathol 46 : 532 540.[CrossRef]
85. Tang DH,, Clark PE,, Giannico G,, Hameed O,, Chang SS,, Gellert LL . 2015. Lack of P16ink4a over expression in penile squamous cell carcinoma is associated with recurrence after lymph node dissection. J Urol 193 : 519 525.[CrossRef]
86. Darragh TM,, Winkler B . 2011. Anal cancer and cervical cancer screening: key differences. Cancer Cytopathol 119 : 5 19.[CrossRef]
87. Castle PE,, Follansbee S,, Borgonovo S,, Tokugawa D,, Schwartz LM,, Lorey TS,, LaMere B,, Gage JC,, Fetterman B,, Darragh TM,, Rodriguez AC,, Wentzensen N . 2013. A comparison of human papillomavirus genotype-specific DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection to identify anal precancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22 : 42 49.[CrossRef]
88. Park IU,, Palefsky JM . 2010. Evaluation and management of anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Curr Infect Dis Rep 12 : 126 133.[CrossRef]
89. Darragh TM,, Colgan TJ,, Cox JT,, Heller DS,, Henry MR,, Luff RD,, McCalmont T,, Nayar R,, Palefsky JM,, Stoler MH,, Wilkinson EJ,, Zaino RJ,, Wilbur DC , Members of LAST Project Work Groups . 2012. The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology Standardization Project for HPV-Associated Lesions: background and consensus recommendations from the College of American Pathologists and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 136 : 1266 1297.[CrossRef]
90. Schim van der Loeff MF,, Mooij SH,, Richel O,, de Vries HJ,, Prins JM . 2014. HPV and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals: a review. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 11 : 250 262.[CrossRef]
91. Glynne-Jones R,, Nilsson PJ,, Aschele C,, Goh V,, Peiffert D,, Cervantes A,, Arnold D , European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), European Society of Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) . 2014. Anal cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Eur J Surg Oncol 40 : 1165 1176.[CrossRef]
92. Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology . 2012. ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 131: screening for cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol 120 : 12221238.
93. Saslow D,, Solomon D,, Lawson HW,, Killackey M,, Kulasingam SL,, Cain J,, Garcia FA,, Moriarty AT,, Waxman AG,, Wilbur DC,, Wentzensen N,, Downs LS Jr,, Spitzer M,, Moscicki AB,, Franco EL,, Stoler MH,, Schiffman M,, Castle PE,, Myers ER , ACS-ASCCP-ASCP Cervical Cancer Guideline Committee . 2012. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 62 : 147 172.[CrossRef]
94. Moyer VA , US Preventive Services Task Force . 2012. Screening for cervical cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 156 : 880 891, W312.
95. Huh WK,, Ault KA,, Chelmow D,, Davey DD,, Goulart RA,, Garcia FAR,, Kinney WK,, Massad LS,, Mayeaux EJ,, Saslow D,, Schiffman M,, Wentzensen N,, Lawson HW,, Einstein MH . 2015. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance. Gynecol Oncol 136 : 178 182.[CrossRef]
96. Massad LS,, Ahdieh L,, Benning L,, Minkoff H,, Greenblatt RM,, Watts H,, Miotti P,, Anastos K,, Moxley M,, Muderspach LI,, Melnick S . 2001. Evolution of cervical abnormalities among women with HIV-1: evidence from surveillance cytology in the women’s interagency HIV study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 27 : 432 442.[CrossRef]
97. Fife KH,, Wu JW,, Squires KE,, Watts DH,, Andersen JW,, Brown DR . 2009. Prevalence and persistence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51 : 274 282.[CrossRef]
98. Konopnicki D,, Manigart Y,, Gilles C,, Barlow P,, de Marchin J,, Feoli F,, Larsimont D,, Delforge M,, De Wit S,, Clumeck N . 2013. Sustained viral suppression and higher CD4 + T-cell count reduces the risk of persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus infection in HIV-positive women. J Infect Dis 207 : 1723 1729.[CrossRef]
99. Krajewski C,, Sucato G . 2014. Reproductive health care after transplantation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 28 : 1222 1234.[CrossRef]
100. Adler DH . 2010. The impact of HAART on HPV-related cervical disease. Curr HIV Res 8 : 493 497.[CrossRef]
101. Kaplan JE,, Benson C,, Holmes KK,, Brooks JT,, Pau A,, Masur H , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institutes of Health, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America . 2009. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep 58( RR-4) : 1 207, quiz CE1–CE4.
102. Aberg JA,, Gallant JE,, Ghanem KG,, Emmanuel P,, Zingman BS,, Horberg MA , Infectious Diseases Society of America . 2014. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 58 : 1 10.[CrossRef]
103. Musa J,, Achenbach C,, Taiwo B,, Berzins B,, Silas O,, Daru PH,, Agbaji O,, Imade G,, Sagay AS,, Idoko JA,, Kanki PJ,, Murphy RL . 2014. High-risk human papilloma virus and cervical abnormalities in HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology. Infect Agent Cancer 9 : 36. [CrossRef]
104. Keller MJ,, Burk RD,, Xie X,, Anastos K,, Massad LS,, Minkoff H,, Xue X,, D’Souza G,, Watts DH,, Levine AM,, Castle PE,, Colie C,, Palefsky JM,, Strickler HD . 2012. Risk of cervical precancer and cancer among HIV-infected women with normal cervical cytology and no evidence of oncogenic HPV infection. JAMA 308 : 362 369.[CrossRef]
105. Clifford GM,, Gonçalves MA,, Franceschi S , HPV and HIV Study Group . 2006. Human papillomavirus types among women infected with HIV: a meta-analysis. AIDS 20 : 2337 2344.[CrossRef]
106. de Sanjose S , , et al, Retrospective International Survey and HPV Time Trends Study Group . 2010. Human papillomavirus genotype attribution in invasive cervical cancer: a retrospective cross-sectional worldwide study. Lancet Oncol 11 : 1048 1056.[CrossRef]
107. Dames DN,, Blackman E,, Butler R,, Taioli E,, Eckstein S,, Devarajan K,, Griffith-Bowe A,, Gomez P,, Ragin C , African Caribbean Cancer Consortium . 2014. High-risk cervical human papillomavirus infections among human immunodeficiency virus-positive women in the Bahamas. PLoS One 9 : e85429. [CrossRef]
108. Burd EM . 2003. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev 16 : 1 17.[CrossRef]
109. Miller FS,, Nagel LE,, Kenny-Moynihan MB . 2007. Implementation of the ThinPrep imaging system in a high-volume metropolitan laboratory. Diagn Cytopathol 35 : 213 217.[CrossRef]
110. Solomon D,, Davey D,, Kurman R,, Moriarty A,, O’Connor D,, Prey M,, Raab S,, Sherman M,, Wilbur D,, Wright T Jr,, Young N , Forum Group Members, Bethesda 2001 Workshop . 2002. The 2001 Bethesda System: terminology for reporting results of cervical cytology. JAMA 287 : 2114 2119.[CrossRef]
111. Ulker V,, Numanoglu C,, Akyol A,, Kuru O,, Akbayir O,, Erim A,, Ongut C . 2013. Analyses of atypical glandular cells re-defined by the 2006 Bethesda System: histologic outcomes and clinical implication of follow-up management. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 34 : 457 461.
112. Gay JD,, Donaldson LD,, Goellner JR . 1985. False-negative results in cervical cytologic studies. Acta Cytol 29 : 1043 1046.
113. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 . 1988. P.L. 100–578. Congr Rec 134 : 38283863.
114. Moscicki AB,, Cox JT . 2010. Practice improvement in cervical screening and management (PICSM): symposium on management of cervical abnormalities in adolescents and young women. J Low Genit Tract Dis 14 : 73 80.[CrossRef]
115. Dockter J,, Schroder A,, Eaton B,, Wang A,, Sikhamsay N,, Morales L,, Giachetti C . 2009. Analytical characterization of the APTIMA HPV assay. J Clin Virol 45( Suppl 1) : S39 S47.[CrossRef]
116. Sauter JL,, Mount SL,, St John TL,, Wojewoda CM,, Bryant RJ,, Leiman G . 2014. Testing of integrated human papillomavirus mRNA decreases colposcopy referrals: could a change in human papillomavirus detection methodology lead to more cost-effective patient care? Acta Cytol 58 : 162 166.[CrossRef]
117. Depuydt CE,, Benoy IH,, Beert JFA,, Criel AM,, Bogers JJ,, Arbyn M . 2012. Clinical validation of a type-specific real-time quantitative human papillomavirus PCR against the performance of hybrid capture 2 for the purpose of cervical cancer screening. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 4073 4077.[CrossRef]
118. Depuydt CE,, Criel AM,, Benoy IH,, Arbyn M,, Vereecken AJ,, Bogers JJ . 2012. Changes in type-specific human papillomavirus load predict progression to cervical cancer. J Cell Mol Med 16 : 3096 3104.[CrossRef]
119. Massad LS,, Einstein MH,, Huh WK,, Katki HA,, Kinney WK,, Schiffman M,, Solomon D,, Wentzensen N,, Lawson HW , 2012 ASCCP Consensus Guidelines Conference . 2013. 2012 updated consensus guidelines for the management of abnormal cervical cancer screening tests and cancer precursors. J Low Genit Tract Dis 17( Suppl 1) : S1 S27.[CrossRef]
120. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents . Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Human Papillomavirus Disease section last updated May 7, 2013. Available at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adult_oi.pdf. Accessed on 2/2/2015.
121. Cuschieri K,, Bhatia R,, Cruickshank M,, Hillemanns P,, Arbyn M . 2016. HPV testing in the context of post-treatment follow up (test of cure). J Clin Virol 76( Suppl 1) : S56 S61.[CrossRef]
122. Markowitz LE,, Dunne EF,, Saraiya M,, Chesson HW,, Curtis CR,, Gee J,, Bocchini JA Jr,, Unger ER , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2014. Human papillomavirus vaccination: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 63( RR-05) : 1 30.
123. Dillner J,, Arbyn M,, Unger E,, Dillner L . 2011. Monitoring of human papillomavirus vaccination. Clin Exp Immunol 163 : 17 25.[CrossRef]
124. Meyer SI,, Fuglsang K,, Blaakaer J . 2014. Cell-mediated immune response: a clinical review of the therapeutic potential of human papillomavirus vaccination. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 93 : 1209 1218.[CrossRef]
125. Joura EA,, Garland SM,, Paavonen J,, Ferris DG,, Perez G,, Ault KA,, Huh WK,, Sings HL,, James MK,, Haupt RM , FUTURE I and II Study Group . 2012. Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ 344 : e1401. [CrossRef]
126. Kumar D,, Unger ER,, Panicker G,, Medvedev P,, Wilson L,, Humar A . 2013. Immunogenicity of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 13 : 2411 2417.[CrossRef]
127. Gustafson LW,, Gade M,, Blaakær J . 2014. Vulval cancer and HPV vaccination in recurrent disease. Clin Case Rep 2 : 243 246.[CrossRef]
128. Mészner Z,, Jankovics I,, Nagy A,, Gerlinger I,, Katona G . 2015. Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis with oesophageal involvement in a 2 year old boy: successful treatment with the quadrivalent human papillomatosis vaccine. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 79 : 262 266.[CrossRef]
129. Coskuner ER,, Ozkan TA,, Karakose A,, Dillioglugil O,, Cevik I . 2014. Impact of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine on disease recurrence in men exposed to HPV infection: a randomized study. J Sex Med 11 : 2785 2791.[CrossRef]
130. Lin K,, Roosinovich E,, Ma B,, Hung C-F,, Wu T-C . 2010. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines. Immunol Res 47 : 86 112.[CrossRef]
131. Peng S,, Song L,, Knoff J,, Wang JW,, Chang YN,, Hannaman D,, Wu TC,, Alvarez RD,, Roden RB,, Hung CF . 2014. Control of HPV-associated tumors by innovative therapeutic HPV DNA vaccine in the absence of CD4 + T cells. Cell Biosci 4 : 11. [CrossRef]

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Cytological and histological classification of anal dysplasia and cervical dysplasia

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Generic image for table
Table 2

Cervical cancer screening guidelines

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015
Generic image for table
Table 3

Role for HPV testing in HIV-infected women ( )

Citation: Burd E, Dean C. 2016. Human Papillomavirus, p 177-195. In Hayden R, Wolk D, Carroll K, Tang Y (ed),

Diagnostic Microbiology of the Immunocompromised Host, Second Edition

. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.DMIH2-0001-2015

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error