1887

Chapter 17 : Overview of Molecular Diagnostics in Multiple-Drug-Resistant Organism Prevention: Focus on Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Organisms

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Overview of Molecular Diagnostics in Multiple-Drug-Resistant Organism Prevention: Focus on Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Organisms, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819071/9781555819088.ch17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819071/9781555819088.ch17-2.gif

Abstract:

The combination of increasing rates of antibiotic resistance and the decreasing pace of new antibiotic development has become an urgent public health crisis (1). Multiple-drug-resistant bacterial organisms (MDROs) have now become common causes of health care-associated infection (HAI), the most prevalent being methicillin-resistant (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant (VRE), and a variety of multiple-drug-resistant Gram-negative rods (MDR-GNRs; organisms that are resistant to most, if not all, available antibiotic classes through myriad mechanisms, including production of β-lactamases with increasingly broad activity) (2–4).

Citation: Sullivan K, Diekema D. 2016. Overview of Molecular Diagnostics in Multiple-Drug-Resistant Organism Prevention: Focus on Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Organisms, p 197-211. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819071.ch17
1. Boucher HW, Talbot GH, Bradley JS, Edwards JE, Gilbert D, Rice LB, Scheld M, Spellberg B, Bartlett J . 2009. Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 48 : 1 12[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Rice LB . 2008. Federal funding for the study of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens: no ESKAPE. J Infect Dis 197 : 1079 1081[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Hidron AI, Edwards JR, Patel J, Horan TC, Sievert DM, Pollock DA, Fridkin SK , National Healthcare Safety Network Team, Participating National Healthcare Safety Network Facilities . 2008. NHSN annual update: antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006–2007. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29 : 996 1011[CrossRef].[PubMed]
4. Klevens RM, Morrison MA, Nadle J, Petit S, Gershman K, Ray S, Harrison LH, Lynfield R, Dumyati G, Townes JM, Craig AS, Zell ER, Fosheim GE, McDougal LK, Carey RB, Fridkin SK . 2007. Invasive MRSA infections in the United States. JAMA 298 : 1763 1771[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. Dellit TH, Owens RC, McGowan JE Jr, Gerding DN, Weinstein RA, Burke JP, Huskins WC, Paterson DL, Fishman NO, Carpenter CF, Brennan PJ, Billeter M, Hooton TM , Infectious Diseases Society of America, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America . 2007. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines for developing an institutional program to enhance antimicrobial stewardship. Clin Infect Dis 44 : 159 177[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L . 2006. Management of MDROs in Health Care Settings, 2006. www.cdc.gov/hicpac/pdf/MDRO/MDROGuideline2006.pdf.
7. Robicsek A, Beaumont JL, Paule SM, Hacek DM, Thomson RB Jr, Kaul KL, King P, Peterson LR . 2008. Universal surveillance for MRSA in 3 affiliated hospitals. Ann Intern Med 148 : 409 418[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. Ben-David D, Maor Y, Keller N, Regev-Yochay G, Tal I, Shachar D, Zlotkin A, Smollan G, Rahav G . 2010. Potential role of active surveillance in the control of a hospital-wide outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 31 : 620 626[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Salgado CD, Farr BM . 2006. What proportion of hospital patients colonized with MRSA are identified by clinical microbiological cultures? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 27 : 116 121[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Diekema DJ, Dodgson KJ, Sigurdardottir B, Pfaller MA . 2004. Rapid detection of antimicrobial-resistant organism carriage: an unmet clinical need. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 2879 2883[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Diekema DJ, Edmond MB . 2007. Look before you leap: active surveillance for multidrug-resistant organisms. Clin Infect Dis 44 : 1101 1107[CrossRef].[PubMed]
12. Sievert DM, Ricks P, Edwards JR, Schneider A, Patel J, Srinivasan A, Kallen A, Limbago B, Fridkin S , National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Team and Participating NHSN Facilities . 2013. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: summary of data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009–2010. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 34 : 1 14[CrossRef].[PubMed]
13. Barber M . 1961. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci. J Clin Pathol 14 : 385 393[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Chambers HF, Deleo FR . 2009. Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol 7 : 629 641[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Paterson GK, Harrison EM, Holmes MA . 2014. The emergence of mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Trends Microbiol 22 : 42 47[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. French GL . 2009. Methods for screening for MRSA carriage. Clin Microbiol Infect 15( Suppl 7) : 10[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Andrews JI, Fleener DK, Messer SA, Kroeger JS, Diekema DJ . 2009. Screening for Staphylococcus aureus carriage in pregnancy: usefulness of novel sampling and culture strategies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201 : 396.e1 396.e5[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Ringberg H, Cathrine Petersson A, Walder M, Hugo Johansson PJ . 2006. The throat: an important site for MRSA colonization. Scand J Infect Dis 38 : 888 893[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Mertz D, Frei R, Periat N, Zimmerli M, Battegay M, Flückiger U, Widmer AF . 2009. Exclusive Staphylococcus aureus throat carriage: at-risk populations. Arch Intern Med 169 : 172 178[CrossRef].[PubMed]
20. Diekema DJ, Pfaller MA, Schmitz FJ, Smayevsky J, Bell J, Jones RN, Beach M , SENTRY Partcipants Group . 2001. Survey of infections due to Staphylococcus species: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997–1999. Clin Infect Dis 32 : S114 S132[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Huletsky A, Giroux R, Rossbach V, Gagnon M, Vaillancourt M, Bernier M, Gagnon F, Truchon K, Bastien M, Picard FJ, van Belkum A, Ouellette M, Roy PH, Bergeron MG . 2004. New real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of MRSA directly from specimens containing a mixture of staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 42 : 1875 1884[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Donnio PY, Oliveira DC, Faria NA, Wilhelm N, Le Coustumier A, de Lencastre H . 2005. Partial excision of the chromosomal cassette containing the methicillin resistance determinant results in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. J Clin Microbiol 43 : 4191 4193[CrossRef].[PubMed]
23. Arbefeville SS, Zhang K, Kroeger JS, Howard WJ, Diekema DJ, Richter SS . 2011. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates detected by the Xpert MRSA nasal assay. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 2996 2999[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Malhotra-Kumar S, Van Heirstraeten L, Lee A, Abrahantes JC, Lammens C, Vanhommerig E, Molenberghs G, Aerts M, Harbarth S, Goossens H . 2010. Evaluation of molecular assays for rapid detection of MRSA. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 4598 4601[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Gray J, Patel M, Turner H, Reynolds F . 2012. MRSA screening on a paediatric intensive care unit. Arch Dis Child 97 : 243 244[CrossRef].[PubMed]
26. Herdman MT, Wyncoll D, Halligan E, Cliff PR, French G, Edgeworth JD . 2009. Clinical application of real-time PCR to screening critically ill and emergency care surgical patients for MRSA: a quantitative analytical study. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 4102 4108[CrossRef].[PubMed]
27. Roisin S, Laurent C, Nonhoff C, Deplano A, Hallin M, Byl B, Struelens MJ, Denis O . 2012. Positive predictive value of the Xpert MRSA assay diagnostic for universal patient screening at hospital admission: influence of the local ecology. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31 : 873 880[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. García-Álvarez L, Holden MT, Lindsay H, Webb CR, Brown DF, Curran MD, Walpole E, Brooks K, Pickard DJ, Teale C, Parkhill J, Bentley SD, Edwards GF, Girvan EK, Kearns AM, Pichon B, Hill RL, Larsen AR, Skov RL, Peacock SJ, Maskell DJ, Holmes MA . 2011. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis 11 : 595 603[CrossRef].[PubMed]
29. Shore AC, Deasy EC, Slickers P, Brennan G, O'Connell B, Monecke S, Ehricht R, Coleman DC . 2011. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 MRSA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 3765 3773[CrossRef].[PubMed]
30. Ito T, Hiramatsu K, Tomasz A, de Lencastre H, Perreten V, Holden MT, Coleman DC, Goering R, Giffard PM, Skov RL, Zhang K, Westh H, O'Brien F, Tenover FC, Oliveira DC, Boyle-Vavra S, Laurent F, Kearns AM, Kreiswirth B, Ko KS, Grundmann H, Sollid JE, John JF Jr, Daum R, Soderquist B, Buist G , International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements (IWG-SCC) . 2012. Guidelines for reporting novel mecA gene homologues. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56 : 4997 4999[CrossRef].[PubMed]
31. Paterson GK, Morgan FJE, Harrison EM, Cartwright EJP, Torok ME, Zadoks RN, Parkhill J, Peacock SJ, Holmes MA . 2014. Prevalence and characterization of human mecC MRSA isolates in England. J Antimicrob Chemother 69 : 907 910[CrossRef].[PubMed]
32. Belmekki M, Mammeri H, Hamdad F, Rousseau F, Canarelli B, Biendo M . 2013. Comparison of Xpert MRSA/SA Nasal and MRSA/SA ELITe MGB assays for detection of the mecA gene with susceptibility testing methods for determination of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 3183 3191[CrossRef].[PubMed]
33. McDaniel JS, Murphy CR, Diekema DJ, Quan V, Kim DS, Peterson EM, Evans KD, Tan GL, Hayden MK, Huang SS . 2013. Chlorhexidine and mupirocin susceptibility of MRSA from colonized nursing home residents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 552 558[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Arthur M, Courvalin P . 1993. Genetics and mechanisms of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37 : 1563 1571[CrossRef].[PubMed]
35. Anderson NW, Buchan BW, Young CL, Newton DW, Brenke C, Lapsley L, Granato PA, Ledeboer NA . 2013. Multicenter clinical evaluation of VRESelect agar for identification of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 2758 2760[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Donskey CJ, Chowdhry TK, Hecker MT, Hoyen CK, Hanrahan JA, Hujer AM, Hutton-Thomas RA, Whalen CC, Bonomo RA, Rice LB . 2000. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the density of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in the stool of colonized patients. N Engl J Med 343 : 1925 1932[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Ballard SA, Grabsch EA, Johnson PD, Grayson ML . 2005. Comparison of three PCR primer sets for identification of vanB gene carriage in feces and correlation with carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: interference by vanB-containing anaerobic bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 77 81[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Gazin M, Lammens C, Goossens H, Malhotra-Kumar S , MOSAR WP2 Study Team . 2012. Evaluation of GeneOhm VanR and Xpert vanA/vanB molecular assays for the rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31 : 273 276[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Graham M, Ballard SA, Grabsch EA, Johnson PD, Grayson ML . 2008. High rates of fecal carriage of nonenterococcal vanB in both children and adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 1195 1197[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Mak A, Miller MA, Chong G, Monczak Y . 2009. Comparison of PCR and culture for screening of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: highly disparate results for vanA and vanB. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 4136 4137[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Datta N, Kontomichalou P . 1965. Penicillinase synthesis controlled by infectious R factors in Enterobacteriaceae. Nature 208 : 239 241[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Pitton JS . 1972. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Ergeb Physiol 65 : 15 93.[PubMed]
43. Kliebe C, Nies BA, Meyer JF, Tolxdorff-Neutzling RM, Wiedemann B . 1985. Evolution of plasmid-coded resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28 : 302 307[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Sougakoff W, Goussard S, Courvalin P . 1988. The TEM-3 β-lactamase, which hydrolyzes broad-spectrum cephalosporins, is derived from the TEM-2 penicillinase by two amino acid substitutions. FEMS Microbiol Lett 56 : 343 348.
45. Matsumoto Y, Ikeda F, Kamimura T, Yokota Y, Mine Y . 1988. Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli that inactivates oxyimino-cephalosporins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32 : 1243 1246[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Bauernfeind A, Grimm H, Schweighart S . 1990. A new plasmidic cefotaximase in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Infection 18 : 294 298[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Pitout JD, Nordmann P, Laupland KB, Poirel T . 2005. Emergence of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in the community. J Antimicrob Chemother 56 : 52 59.
48. Bonnet R . 2004. Growing group of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: the CTX-M enzymes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 : 1 14[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Ambler RP . 1980. The structure of beta-lactamases. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 289 : 321 331[CrossRef].[PubMed]
50. Naas T, Poirel L, Nordmann P . 2008. Minor extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Clin Microbiol Infect 14( Suppl 1) : 42 52[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Bush K, Jacoby GA, Medeiros AA . 1995. A functional classification scheme for beta-lactamases and its correlation with molecular structure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 : 1211 1233[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Jacoby GA . 2009. AmpC beta-lactamases. Clin Microbiol Rev 22 : 161 182[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. Denisuik AJ, Lagacé-Wiens PR, Pitout JD, Mulvey MR, Simner PJ, Tailor F, Karlowsky JA, Hoban DJ, Adam HJ, Zhanel GG, Zhanel GG, Hoban DJ, Adam HJ, Karlowsky JA, Baxter MR, Nichol KA, Lagace-Wiens PRS, Walkty A , Canadian Antimicrobial Resistance Alliance . 2013. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-, AmpC β-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Canadian hospitals over a 5 year period: CANWARD 2007–11. J Antimicrob Chemother 68( Suppl 1) : i57 i65[CrossRef].[PubMed]
54. Philippon A, Arlet G, Jacoby GA . 2002. Plasmid-determined AmpC-type β-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46 : 1 11[CrossRef].[PubMed]
55. Sheng WH, Badal RE, Hsueh PR , SMART Program . 2013. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 2981 2988[CrossRef].[PubMed]
56. Lee CC, Lee NY, Yan JJ, Lee HC, Chen PL, Chang CM, Wu CJ, Ko NY, Wang LR, Chi CH, Ko WC . 2010. Bacteremia due to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae: role of carbapenem therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54 : 3551 3556[CrossRef].[PubMed]
57. Yigit H, Queenan AM, Anderson GJ, Domenech-Sanchez A, Biddle JW, Steward CD, Alberti S, Bush K, Tenover FC . 2001. Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45 : 1151 1161[CrossRef].[PubMed]
58. Yigit H, Queenan AM, Anderson GJ, Domenech-Sanchez A, Biddle JW, Steward CD, Alberti S, Bush K, Tenover FC . 2008. Novel carbapenem-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase, KPC-1, from a carbapenem-resistant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 : 809[CrossRef].[PubMed]
59. Nordmann P, Naas T, Poirel L . 2011. Global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerg Infect Dis 17 : 1791 1798[CrossRef].[PubMed]
60. Pasteran FG, Otaegui L, Guerriero L, Radice G, Maggiora R, Rapoport M, Faccone D, Di Martino A, Galas M . 2008. Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-2, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 14 : 1178 1180[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Yong D, Toleman MA, Giske CG, Cho HS, Sundman K, Lee K, Walsh TR . 2009. Characterization of a new metallo-beta-lactamase gene, bla(NDM-1), and a novel erythromycin esterase gene carried on a unique genetic structure in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 14 from India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53 : 5046 5054[CrossRef].[PubMed]
62. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . 2013. Notes from the field: hospital outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae producing New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase—Denver, Colorado, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 62 : 108108.[PubMed]
63. Escobar Pérez JA, Olarte Escobar NM, Castro-Cardozo B, Valderrama Márquez IA, Garzón Aguilar MI, Martinez de la Barrera L, Barrero Barreto ER, Marquez-Ortiz RA, Moncada Guayazán MV, Vanegas Gómez N . 2013. Outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a neonatal unit in Colombia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 1957 1960[CrossRef].[PubMed]
64. Lauretti L, Riccio ML, Mazzariol A, Cornaglia G, Amicosante G, Fontana R, Rossolini GM . 1999. Cloning and characterization of blaVIM, a new integron-borne metallo-beta-lactamase gene from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43 : 1584 1590.[PubMed]
65. Miriagou V, Tzelepi E, Gianneli D, Tzouvelekis LS . 2003. Escherichia coli with a self-transferable, multiresistant plasmid coding for metallo-β-lactamase VIM-1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47 : 395 397[CrossRef].[PubMed]
66. Watanabe M, Iyobe S, Inoue M, Mitsuhashi S . 1991. Transferable imipenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 35 : 147 151[CrossRef].[PubMed]
67. Ito H, Arakawa Y, Ohsuka S, Wacharotayankun R, Kato N, Ohta M . 1995. Plasmid-mediated dissemination of the metallo-beta-lactamase gene blaIMP among clinically isolated strains of Serratia marcescens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 : 824 829[CrossRef].[PubMed]
68. Poirel L, Héritier C, Tolün V, Nordmann P . 2004. Emergence of oxacillinase-mediated resistance to imipenem in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 : 15 22[CrossRef].[PubMed]
69. Poirel L, Potron A, Nordmann P . 2012. OXA-48-like carbapenemases: the phantom menace. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 1597 1606[CrossRef].[PubMed]
70. Ho C, Lau A, Cimon K, Farrah K, Gardam M . 2012. Screening, isolation, and decolonization strategies for vancomycin-resistant enterococci or extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms: a systematic review of the clinical evidence and health services impact. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Ottawa, Canada. http://www.cadth.ca/media/pdf/htis/sept-2012/RE0028_VREReport_e.pdf.
71. Murk JL, Heddema ER, Hess DLA, Bogaards JA, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ . 2009. Enrichment broth improved detection of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in throat and rectal surveillance cultures of samples from patients in intensive care units. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 1885 1887[CrossRef].[PubMed]
72. Grohs P, Tillecovidin B, Caumont-Prim A, Carbonnelle E, Day N, Podglajen I, Gutmann L . 2013. Comparison of five media for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase by use of the Wasp instrument for automated specimen processing. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 2713 2716[CrossRef].[PubMed]
73. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Laboratory Protocol for Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant or Carbapenemase-Producing, Klebsiella spp. and E. coli from Rectal Swabs. http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/labsettings/klebsiella_or_ecoli.pdf.
74. Girlich D, Poirel L, Nordmann P . 2013. Comparison of the SUPERCARBA, CHROMagar KPC, and Brilliance CRE screening media for detection of Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 75 : 214 217[CrossRef].[PubMed]
75. Wilkinson KM, Winstanley TG, Lanyon C, Cummings SP, Raza MW, Perry JD . 2012. Comparison of four chromogenic culture media for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 3102 3104[CrossRef].[PubMed]
76. Girlich D, Poirel L, Nordmann P . 2013. Comparison of the SUPERCARBA, CHROMagar KPC, and Brilliance CRE screening media for detection of Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 75 : 214 217[CrossRef].[PubMed]
77. CLSI . 2014. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, 24th informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S24. CLSI, Wayne, PA.
78. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing . 2013. EUCAST guidelines for detection of resistance mechanisms and specific resistances of clinical and/or epidemiological importance. Version 1.0. http://www.eucast.org/resistance_mechanisms/.
79. Kohner PC, Robberts FJ, Cockerill FR III, Patel R . 2009. Cephalosporin MIC distribution of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase- and pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 2419 2425[CrossRef].[PubMed]
80. Dudley MN, Ambrose PG, Bhavnani SM, Craig WA, Ferraro MJ, Jones RN , Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute . 2013. Background and rationale for revised clinical and laboratory standards institute interpretive criteria (breakpoints) for Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: I. Cephalosporins and Aztreonam. Clin Infect Dis 56 : 1301 1309[CrossRef].[PubMed]
81. Leclercq R, Cantón R, Brown DF, Giske CG, Heisig P, MacGowan AP, Mouton JW, Nordmann P, Rodloff AC, Rossolini GM, Soussy CJ, Steinbakk M, Winstanley TG, Kahlmeter G . 2013. EUCAST expert rules in antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Clin Microbiol Infect 19 : 141 160[CrossRef].[PubMed]
82. Andes D, Craig WA . 2005. Treatment of infections with ESBL-producing organisms: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. Clin Microbiol Infect 11( Suppl 6) : 10 17[CrossRef].[PubMed]
83. Maglio D, Ong C, Banevicius MA, Geng Q, Nightingale CH, Nicolau DP . 2004. Determination of the in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of cefepime against extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli at various inocula. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48 : 1941 1947[CrossRef].[PubMed]
84. Spanu T, Sanguinetti M, Tumbarello M, D'Inzeo T, Fiori B, Posteraro B, Santangelo R, Cauda R, Fadda G . 2006. Evaluation of the new VITEK 2 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) test for rapid detection of ESBL production in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. J Clin Microbiol 44 : 3257 3262[CrossRef].[PubMed]
85. Jang W, Park YJ, Park KG, Yu J . 2013. Evaluation of MicroScan WalkAway and Vitek 2 for determination of the susceptibility of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to cefepime, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 2282 2285.[PubMed]
86. Färber J, Moder KA, Layer F, Tammer I, König W, König B . 2008. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase detection with different panels for automated susceptibility testing and with a chromogenic medium. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 3721 3727[CrossRef].[PubMed]
87. Seah C, Low DE, Patel SN, Melano RG . 2011. Comparative evaluation of a chromogenic agar medium, the modified Hodge test, and a battery of meropenem-inhibitor discs for detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 1965 1969[CrossRef].[PubMed]
88. Doyle D, Peirano G, Lascols C, Lloyd T, Church DL, Pitout JD . 2012. Laboratory detection of Enterobacteriaceae that produce carbapenemases. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 3877 3880[CrossRef].[PubMed]
89. Nordmann P, Poirel L, Dortet L . 2012. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Emerg Infect Dis 18 : 1503 1507[CrossRef].[PubMed]
90. Dortet L, Cuzon G, Nordmann P . 2014. Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in France, 2012. J Antimicrob Chemother 69 : 623 627[CrossRef].[PubMed]
91. Tijet N, Boyd D, Patel SN, Mulvey MR, Melano RG . 2013. Evaluation of the Carba NP test for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57 : 4578 4580[CrossRef].[PubMed]
92. Huang TD, Berhin C, Bogaerts P, Glupczynski Y . 2014. Comparative evaluation of two chromogenic tests for rapid detection of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. J Clin Microbiol 52 : 3060 3063[CrossRef].[PubMed]
93. Nüesch-Inderbinen MT, Hächler H, Kayser FH . 1996. Detection of genes coding for extended-spectrum SHV beta-lactamases in clinical isolates by a molecular genetic method, and comparison with the E test. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15 : 398 402[CrossRef].[PubMed]
94. Dallenne C, Da Costa A, Decré D, Favier C, Arlet G . 2010. Development of a set of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of genes encoding important beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 65 : 490 495[CrossRef].[PubMed]
95. Colom K, Pérez J, Alonso R, Fernández-Aranguiz A, Lariño E, Cisterna R . 2003. Simple and reliable multiplex PCR assay for detection of blaTEM, bla(SHV) and blaOXA-1 genes in Enterobacteriaceae. FEMS Microbiol Lett 223 : 147 151[CrossRef].[PubMed]
96. Roschanski N, Fischer J, Guerra B, Roesler U . 2014. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of the predominant beta-lactamase genes CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CIT-type AmpCs in Enterobacteriaceae. PLoS One 9 : e100956[CrossRef].[PubMed]
97. Pitout JD, Hamilton N, Church DL, Nordmann P, Poirel L . 2007. Development and clinical validation of a molecular diagnostic assay to detect CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae. Clin Microbiol Infect 13 : 291 297[CrossRef].[PubMed]
98. Batchelor M, Hopkins K, Threlfall EJ, Clifton-Hadley FA, Stallwood AD, Davies RH, Liebana E . 2005. bla( CTX-M) genes in clinical Salmonella isolates recovered from humans in England and Wales from 1992 to 2003. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49 : 1319 1322[CrossRef].[PubMed]
99. Xu L, Ensor V, Gossain S, Nye K, Hawkey P . 2005. Rapid and simple detection of blaCTX-M genes by multiplex PCR assay. J Med Microbiol 54 : 1183 1187[CrossRef].[PubMed]
100. Woodford N, Fagan EJ, Ellington MJ . 2006. Multiplex PCR for rapid detection of genes encoding CTX-M extended-spectrum (beta)-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother 57 : 154 155[CrossRef].[PubMed]
101. Birkett CI, Ludlam HA, Woodford N, Brown DF, Brown NM, Roberts MT, Milner N, Curran MD . 2007. Real-time TaqMan PCR for rapid detection and typing of genes encoding CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. J Med Microbiol 56 : 52 55[CrossRef].[PubMed]
102. Chen L, Mediavilla JR, Endimiani A, Rosenthal ME, Zhao Y, Bonomo RA, Kreiswirth BN . 2011. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection and classification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (bla KPC) variants. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 579 585[CrossRef].[PubMed]
103. Cole JM, Schuetz AN, Hill CE, Nolte FS . 2009. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase genes. J Clin Microbiol 47 : 322 326[CrossRef].[PubMed]
104. Ong DC, Koh TH, Syahidah N, Krishnan P, Tan TY . 2011. Rapid detection of the blaNDM-1 gene by real-time PCR. J Antimicrob Chemother 66 : 1647 1649[CrossRef].[PubMed]
105. Diene SM, Bruder N, Raoult D, Rolain JM . 2011. Real-time PCR assay allows detection of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1)-encoding gene in France. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37 : 544 546[CrossRef].[PubMed]
106. Bisiklis A, Papageorgiou F, Frantzidou F, Alexiou-Daniel S . 2007. Specific detection of blaVIM and blaIMP metallo-beta-lactamase genes in a single real-time PCR. Clin Microbiol Infect 13 : 1201 1203[CrossRef].[PubMed]
107. Cunningham SA, Noorie T, Meunier D, Woodford N, Patel R . 2013. Rapid and simultaneous detection of genes encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM) in Gram-negative bacilli. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 1269 1271[CrossRef].[PubMed]
108. Ellington MJ, Kistler J, Livermore DM, Woodford N . 2007. Multiplex PCR for rapid detection of genes encoding acquired metallo-beta-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother 59 : 321 322[CrossRef].[PubMed]
109. Poirel L, Walsh TR, Cuvillier V, Nordmann P . 2011. Multiplex PCR for detection of acquired carbapenemase genes. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 70 : 119 123[CrossRef].[PubMed]
110. Monteiro J, Widen RH, Pignatari AC, Kubasek C, Silbert S . 2012. Rapid detection of carbapenemase genes by multiplex real-time PCR. J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 906 909[CrossRef].[PubMed]
111. van der Zee A, Roorda L, Bosman G, Fluit AC, Hermans M, Smits PH, van der Zanden AG, Te Witt R, Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet LE, Cohen Stuart J, Ossewaarde JM . 2014. Multi-centre evaluation of real-time multiplex PCR for detection of carbapenemase genes OXA-48, VIM, IMP, NDM and KPC. BMC Infect Dis 14 : 27[CrossRef].[PubMed]
112. Naas T, Ergani A, Carrër A, Nordmann P . 2011. Real-time PCR for detection of NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from spiked stool samples. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55 : 4038 4043[CrossRef].[PubMed]
113. Naas T, Cotellon G, Ergani A, Nordmann P . 2013. Real-time PCR for detection of blaOXA-48 genes from stools. J Antimicrob Chemother 68 : 101 104[CrossRef].[PubMed]
114. Hindiyeh M, Smollen G, Grossman Z, Ram D, Davidson Y, Mileguir F, Vax M, Ben David D, Tal I, Rahav G, Shamiss A, Mendelson E, Keller N . 2008. Rapid detection of blaKPC carbapenemase genes by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 46 : 2879 2883[CrossRef].[PubMed]
115. Singh K, Mangold KA, Wyant K, Schora DM, Voss B, Kaul KL, Hayden MK, Chundi V, Peterson LR . 2012. Rectal screening for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases: comparison of real-time PCR and culture using two selective screening agar plates. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 2596 2600[CrossRef].[PubMed]
116. Vasoo S, Cunningham SA, Kohner PC, Mandrekar JN, Lolans K, Hayden MK, Patel R . 2013. Rapid and direct real-time detection of blaKPC and blaNDM from surveillance samples. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 3609 3615[CrossRef].[PubMed]
117. Richter SN, Frasson I, Biasolo MA, Bartolini A, Cavallaro A, Palù G . 2012. Ultrarapid detection of bla KPC1/2-12 from perirectal and nasal swabs by use of real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 1718 1720[CrossRef].[PubMed]
118. Ambretti S, Gaibani P, Berlingeri A, Cordovana M, Tamburini MV, Bua G, Landini MP, Sambri V . 2013. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic approaches for the detection of class A and class B carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae. Microb Drug Resist 19 : 212 215[CrossRef].[PubMed]
119. Kaase M, Szabados F, Wassill L, Gatermann SG . 2012. Detection of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae by a commercial multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 50 : 3115 3118[CrossRef].[PubMed]
120. Avlami A, Bekris S, Ganteris G, Kraniotaki E, Malamou-Lada E, Orfanidou M, Paniara O, Pantazatou A, Papagiannitsis CC, Platsouka E, Stefanou I, Tzelepi E, Vagiakou H, Miriagou V . 2010. Detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes in clinical specimens by a commercial multiplex PCR system. J Microbiol Methods 83 : 185 187[CrossRef].[PubMed]
121. Tenover FC, Canton R, Kop J, Chan R, Ryan J, Weir F, Ruiz-Garbajosa P, LaBombardi V, Persing DH . 2013. Detection of colonization by carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli in patients by use of the Xpert MDRO assay. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 3780 3787[CrossRef].[PubMed]
122. McEwan AS, Derome A, Meunier D, Burns PJ, Woodford N, Dodgson AR . 2013. Evaluation of the NucliSENS EasyQ KPC assay for detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 51 : 1948 1950[CrossRef].[PubMed]
123. Spanu T, Fiori B, D'Inzeo T, Canu G, Campoli S, Giani T, Palucci I, Tumbarello M, Sanguinetti M, Rossolini GM . 2012. Evaluation of the New NucliSENS EasyQ KPC test for rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase genes (blaKPC). J Clin Microbiol 50 : 2783 2785[CrossRef].[PubMed]
124. Cuzon G, Naas T, Bogaerts P, Glupczynski Y, Nordmann P . 2013. Probe ligation and real-time detection of KPC, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, and NDM carbapenemase genes. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 76 : 502 505[CrossRef].[PubMed]
125. Willemsen I, Hille L, Vrolijk A, Bergmans A, Kluytmans J . 2014. Evaluation of a commercial real-time PCR for the detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase genes. J Med Microbiol 63 : 540 543[CrossRef].[PubMed]
126. Nijhuis R, Samuelsen O, Savelkoul P, van Zwet A . 2013. Evaluation of a new real-time PCR assay (Check-Direct CPE) for rapid detection of KPC, OXA-48, VIM, and NDM carbapenemases using spiked rectal swabs. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 77 : 316 320[CrossRef].[PubMed]
127. Stuart JC, Voets G, Scharringa J, Fluit AC, Leverstein-Van Hall MA . 2012. Detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae with a commercial DNA microarray. J Med Microbiol 61 : 809 812[CrossRef].[PubMed]
128. Naas T, Cuzon G, Bogaerts P, Glupczynski Y, Nordmann P . 2011. Evaluation of a DNA microarray (Check-MDR CT102) for rapid detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases and of KPC, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, and NDM-1 carbapenemases. J Clin Microbiol 49 : 1608 1613[CrossRef].[PubMed]
129. Woodford N, Warner M, Pike R, Zhang J . 2011. Evaluation of a commercial microarray to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 66 : 2887 2888[CrossRef].[PubMed]
130. Cuzon G, Naas T, Bogaerts P, Glupczynski Y, Nordmann P . 2012. Evaluation of a DNA microarray for the rapid detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (TEM, SHV and CTX-M), plasmid-mediated cephalosporinases (CMY-2-like, DHA, FOX, ACC-1, ACT/MIR and CMY-1-like/MOX) and carbapenemases (KPC, OXA-48, VIM, IMP and NDM). J Antimicrob Chemother 67 : 1865 1869[CrossRef].[PubMed]
131. Dortet L, Bréchard L, Cuzon G, Poirel L, Nordmann P . 2014. Strategy for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58 : 2441 2445[CrossRef].[PubMed]
132. Harbarth S, Fankhauser C, Schrenzel J, Christenson J, Gervaz P, Bandiera-Clerc C, Renzi G, Vernaz N, Sax H, Pittet D . 2008. Universal screening for MRSA at hospital admission and nosocomial infection in surgical patients. JAMA 299 : 1149 1157[CrossRef].[PubMed]
133. Huskins WC, Huckabee CM, O'Grady NP, Murray P, Kopetskie H, Zimmer L, Walker ME, Sinkowitz-Cochran RL, Jernigan JA, Samore M, Wallace D, Goldmann DA , STAR*ICU Trial Investigators . 2011. Intervention to reduce transmission of resistant bacteria in intensive care. N Engl J Med 364 : 1407 1418[CrossRef].[PubMed]
134. Derde LP, Cooper BS, Goossens H, Malhotra-Kumar S, Willems RJ, Gniadkowski M, Hryniewicz W, Empel J, Dautzenberg MJ, Annane D, Aragão I, Chalfine A, Dumpis U, Esteves F, Giamarellou H, Muzlovic I, Nardi G, Petrikkos GL, Tomic V, Martí AT, Stammet P, Brun-Buisson C, Bonten MJ . 2014. Interventions to reduce colonization and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in ICUs: an interrupted time series study and cluster randomized trial. Lancet Infect Dis 14 : 31 39[CrossRef].[PubMed]
135. Huang SS, Septimus E, Kleinman K, Moody J, Hickok J, Avery TR, Lankiewicz J, Gombosev A, Terpstra L, Hartford F, Hayden MK, Jernigan JA, Weinstein RA, Fraser VJ, Haffenreffer K, Cui E, Kaganov RE, Lolans K, Perlin JB, Platt R , CDC Prevention Epicenters Program, AHRQ DECIDE Network and Healthcare-Associated Infections Program . 2013. Targeted versus universal decolonization to prevent ICU infection. N Engl J Med 368 : 2255 2265[CrossRef].[PubMed]
136. Peterson LR, Diekema DJ . 2010. To screen or not to screen for MRSA. J Clin Microbiol 48 : 683 689[CrossRef].[PubMed]
137. Peterson LR, Karchmer T, Tenover FC . 2011. Transmission of resistant bacteria in intensive care. N Engl J Med 365 : 761 762, author reply 764–765[CrossRef].[PubMed]
138. Polisena J, Chen S, Cimon K, McGill S, Forward K, Gardam M . 2011. Clinical effectiveness of rapid tests for MRSA in hospitalized patients: a systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 11 : 336[CrossRef].[PubMed]
139. Tacconelli E, De Angelis G, de Waure C, Cataldo MA, La Torre G, Cauda R . 2009. Rapid screening tests for MRSA at hospital admission: systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 9 : 546 554[CrossRef].[PubMed]
140. Aldeyab MA, Kearney MP, Hughes CM, Scott MG, Tunney MM, Gilpin DF, Devine MJ, Watson JD, Gardiner A, Funston C, Savage K, McElnay JC . 2009. Can the use of rapid PCR screening method decrease the incidence of nosocomial MRSA? J Hosp Infect 71 : 22 28[CrossRef].[PubMed]
141. Hardy K, Price C, Szczepura A, Gossain S, Davies R, Stallard N, Shabir S, McMurray C, Bradbury A, Hawkey PM . 2010. Reduction in the rate of MRSA acquisition in surgical wards by rapid screening for colonization: a prospective, cross-over study. Clin Microbiol Infect 16 : 333 339[CrossRef].[PubMed]
142. Jeyaratnam D, Whitty CJ, Phillips K, Liu D, Orezzi C, Ajoku U, French GL . 2008. Impact of rapid screening tests on acquisition of MRSA: cluster randomized crossover trial. BMJ 336 : 927 930[CrossRef].[PubMed]
143. Roisin S, Laurent C, Denis O, Dramaix M, Nonhoff C, Hallin M, Byl B, Struelens MJ . 2014. Impact of rapid molecular screening at hospital admission on nosocomial transmission of MRSA: cluster randomized trial. PLoS One 9 : e96310[CrossRef].[PubMed]
144. Kypraios T, O'Neill PD, Huang SS, Rifas-Shiman SL, Cooper BS . 2010. Assessing the role of undetected colonization and isolation precautions in reducing MRSA transmission in ICUs. BMC Infect Dis 10 : 29[CrossRef].[PubMed]
145. Murthy A, De Angelis G, Pittet D, Schrenzel J, Uckay I, Harbarth S . 2010. Cost-effectiveness of universal MRSA screening on admission to surgery. Clin Microbiol Infect 16 : 1747 1753[CrossRef].[PubMed]
146. Olchanski N, Mathews C, Fusfeld L, Jarvis W . 2011. Assessment of the influence of test characteristics on the clinical and cost impacts of MRSA screening programs in US hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 32 : 250 257[CrossRef].[PubMed]
147. Wassenberg M, Kluytmans J, Erdkamp S, Bosboom R, Buiting A, van Elzakker E, Melchers W, Thijsen S, Troelstra A, Vandenbroucke-Grauls C, Visser C, Voss A, Wolffs P, Wulf M, van Zwet T, de Wit A, Bonten M . 2012. Costs and benefits of rapid screening of MRSA in ICUs: a prospective multicenter study. Crit Care 16 : R22[CrossRef].[PubMed]
148. Morgan DJ, Diekema DJ, Sepkowitz K, Perencevich EN . 2009. Adverse outcomes associated with contact precautions: a review of the literature. Am J Infect Control 37 : 85 93[CrossRef].[PubMed]
149. Shenoy ES, Kim J, Rosenberg ES, Cotter JA, Lee H, Walensky RP, Hooper DC . 2013. Discontinuation of contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a randomized controlled trial comparing passive and active screening with culture and polymerase chain reaction. Clin Infect Dis 57 : 176 184[CrossRef].[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Advantages and disadvantages of culture-based versus molecular-based surveillance methods

Citation: Sullivan K, Diekema D. 2016. Overview of Molecular Diagnostics in Multiple-Drug-Resistant Organism Prevention: Focus on Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Organisms, p 197-211. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Summary of studies assessing impact of rapid versus culture-based detection of MRSA carriage

Citation: Sullivan K, Diekema D. 2016. Overview of Molecular Diagnostics in Multiple-Drug-Resistant Organism Prevention: Focus on Multiple-Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Organisms, p 197-211. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error