1887

Chapter 18 : Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819071/9781555819088.ch18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819071/9781555819088.ch18-2.gif

Abstract:

Vancomycin is a glycopeptide derived from soil bacteria that was authorized for use in 1958 for infections due to Gram-positive bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Toxicity led to its rapid replacement by methicillin in 1960; however, vancomycin use was again required by the 1970s for infections due to methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and toxigenic . In 1986, the first outbreak of enterococci with high-level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin was reported in the United Kingdom (1). A year later, infections due to vancomycin-resistant infections were identified in the United States (2, 3).

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic tree constructed using MEGA6 ( ) showing the relationships of -Ala--Lac ligases, -Ala--Ser ligases, and -Ala--Ala ligases (Ddl). The proteins were aligned using ClustalW ( ), and the tree was constructed with the neighbor-joining method ( ) using 247 amino acids. The evolutionary distances were computed using the JTT matrix-based method ( ), and the units are number of amino acid substitutions per site. Robustness of the data was tested by bootstrap analysis ( ) using 1,000 replicates. GenBank accession numbers are shown in brackets. (Figure courtesy of David A. Boyd, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Canada.)

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic diagram of (A) the -Ala--Lac operons found in enterococci and and and (B) the -Ala--Ser operons found in enterococci. The operons are aligned at the -Ala--Xxx ligase genes. Other genes are (), transcriptional activator; (), response regulator; (), sensor histidine kinase; (), unknown function; (), dehydrogenase; (), serine racemase; (), serine racemase membrane domain; (), serine racemase racemase domain; (), carboxypeptidase; (), dipeptidase; (), dipeptidease/carboxypeptidase; (), unknown function but known to be involved in teicoplanin resistance; , aminoacyl transferase; , teicoplanin resistance membrane protein. (Figure courtesy David A. Boyd, National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, Canada.)

Citation: McGeer A, Willey B. 2016. Detection of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci, p 212-231. In Persing D, Tenover F, Hayden R, Ieven M, Miller M, Nolte F, Tang Y, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819071.ch18
1. Uttley AH, Collins CH, Naidoo J, George RC. 1988. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Lancet 1:5758[CrossRef].[PubMed]
2. Frieden TR, Munsiff SS, Low DE, Willey BM, Williams G, Faur Y, Eisner W, Warren S, Kreiswirth B. 1993. Emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in New York City. Lancet 342:7679[CrossRef].[PubMed]
3. Willey B, Chan A, Kwan A, Kreiswirth B, McGeer A, Low DE.1993. Characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) isolated over a two year period from a New York City (NYC) hospital, abstract A-89. Abstr 93rd Gen Meet Am Soc Microbiol. American Society for Micribiology, Washington DC.
4. Top J, Willems R, Bonten M. 2008. Emergence of CC17 Enterococcus faecium: from commensal to hospital-adapted pathogen. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:297308[CrossRef].[PubMed]
5. D'Agata EM, Gautam S, Green WK, Tang YW. 2002. High rate of false-negative results of the rectal swab culture method in detection of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Infect Dis 34:167172[CrossRef].[PubMed]
6. Boyce JM. 1997. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Detection, epidemiology, and control measures. Infect Dis Clin North Am 11:367384[CrossRef].[PubMed]
7. Bourdon N, Fines-Guyon M, Thiolet JM, Maugat S, Coignard B, Leclercq R, Cattoir V. 2011. Changing trends in vancomycin-resistant enterococci in French hospitals, 2001–08. J Antimicrob Chemother 66:713721[CrossRef].[PubMed]
8. de Kraker ME, Jarlier V, Monen JC, Heuer OE, van de Sande N, Grundmann H. 2013. The changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in Europe: trends from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. Clin Microbiol Infect 19:860868[CrossRef].[PubMed]
9. Klare I, Konstabel C, Mueller-Bertling S, Werner G, Strommenger B, Kettlitz C, Borgmann S, Schulte B, Jonas D, Serr A, Fahr AM, Eigner U, Witte W. 2005. Spread of ampicillin/vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium of the epidemic-virulent clonal complex-17 carrying the genes esp and hyl in German hospitals. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:815825[CrossRef].[PubMed]
10. Top J, Willems R, van der Velden S, Asbroek M, Bonten M. 2008. Emergence of clonal complex 17 Enterococcus faecium in The Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol 46:214219[CrossRef].[PubMed]
11. Werner G, Klare I, Fleige C, Witte W. 2008. Increasing rates of vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium isolated from German hospitals between 2004 and 2006 are due to wide clonal dissemination of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and horizontal spread of vanA clusters. Int J Med Microbiol 298:515527[CrossRef].[PubMed]
12. Brilliantova AN, Kliasova GA, Mironova AV, Tishkov VI, Novichkova GA, Bobrynina VO, Sidorenko SV. 2010. Spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in two haematological centres in Russia. Int J Antimicrob Agents 35:177181[CrossRef].[PubMed]
13. Hsieh YC, Lee WS, Ou TY, Hsueh PR. 2010. Clonal spread of CC17 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium with multilocus sequence type 78 (ST78) and a novel ST444 in Taiwan. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:2530[CrossRef].[PubMed]
14. Khan MA, van der Wal M, Farrell DJ, Cossins L, van Belkum A, Alaidan A, Hays JP. 2008. Analysis of VanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Saudi Arabian hospitals reveals the presence of clonal cluster 17 and two new Tn1546 lineage types. J Antimicrob Chemother 62:279283[CrossRef].[PubMed]
15. Khan MA, Northwood JB, Loor RG, Tholen AT, Riera E, Falcón M, van Belkum A, van Westreenen M, Hays JP, Paraguayan Antimicrobial Network. 2010. High prevalence of ST-78 infection-associated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from hospitals in Asunción, Paraguay. Clin Microbiol Infect 16:624627[CrossRef].[PubMed]
16. Panesso D, Reyes J, Rincón S, Díaz L, Galloway-Peña J, Zurita J, Carrillo C, Merentes A, Guzmán M, Adachi JA, Murray BE, Arias CA. 2010. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a prospective, multicenter study in South American hospitals. J Clin Microbiol 48:15621569[CrossRef].[PubMed]
17. Ammam F, Marvaud JC, Lambert T. 2012. Distribution of the vanG-like gene cluster in Clostridium difficile clinical isolates. Can J Microbiol 58:547551[CrossRef].[PubMed]
18. Ammam F, Meziane-Cherif D, Mengin-Lecreulx D, Blanot D, Patin D, Boneca IG, Courvalin P, Lambert T, Candela T. 2013. The functional vanGCd cluster of Clostridium difficile does not confer vancomycin resistance. Mol Microbiol 89:612625[CrossRef].[PubMed]
19. Neely AN, Maley MP. 2000. Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. J Clin Microbiol 38:724726.[PubMed]
20. Zhou Q, Moore C, Eden S, Tong A, McGeer A, Mount Sinai Hospital Infection Control Team. 2008. Factors associated with acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in roommate contacts of patients colonized or infected with VRE in a tertiary care hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:398403[CrossRef].[PubMed]
21. Elsayed S, Hamilton N, Boyd D, Mulvey M, Kariyama R, Mitsuhata R, Kumon H. 2001. Improved primer design for multiplex PCR analysis of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. J Clin Microbiol 39:23672368[CrossRef].[PubMed]
22. Jett B, Free L, Sahm DF. 1996. Factors influencing the vitek gram-positive susceptibility system's detection of vanB-encoded vancomycin resistance among enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 34:701706.[PubMed]
23. Pendle S, Jelfs P, Olma T, Su Y, Gilroy N, Gilbert GL. 2008. Difficulties in detection and identification of Enterococcus faecium with low-level inducible resistance to vancomycin, during a hospital outbreak. Clin Microbiol Infect 14:853857[CrossRef].[PubMed]
24. Wijesuriya T, Perry P, Pryce T, Boehm J, Kay I, Flexman J, Coombs G, Ingram P. 2014. Lower vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations and faecal densities reduce the sensitivity of vancomycin-resistant enterococci screening methods. J Clin Microbiol 52:28292833[CrossRef].[PubMed]
25. Cattoir V, Leclercq R. 2013. Twenty-five years of shared life with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: is it time to divorce? J Antimicrob Chemother 68:731742[CrossRef].[PubMed]
26. Dahl KH, Simonsen GS, Olsvik O, Sundsfjord A. 1999. Heterogeneity in the vanB gene cluster of genomically diverse clinical strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:11051110.[PubMed]
27. Shokoohizadeh L, Mobarez AM, Zali MR, Ranjbar R, Alebouyeh M, Sakinc T, Ali L. 2013. High frequency distribution of heterogeneous vancomycin resistant Enterococcous faecium (VREfm) in Iranian hospitals. Diagn Pathol 8:163[CrossRef].[PubMed]
28. Coburn B, Low DE, Patel SN, Poutanen SM, Shahinas D, Eshaghi A, Willey BM, McGeer A. 2014. Vancomycin-variable Enterococcus faecium: in vivo emergence of vancomycin resistance in a vancomycin-susceptible isolate. J Clin Microbiol 52:17661767[CrossRef].[PubMed]
29. Szakacs TA, Kalan L, McConnell MJ, Eshaghi A, Shahinas D, McGeer A, Wright GD, Low DE, Patel SN. 2014. Outbreak of vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium containing the wild-type vanA gene. J Clin Microbiol 52:16821686[CrossRef].[PubMed]
30. Thaker MN, Kalan L, Waglechner N, Eshaghi A, Patel SN, Poutanen S, Willey B, Coburn B, McGeer A, Low DE, Wright GD. 2015. Vancomycin-variable enterococci can give rise to constitutive resistance during antibiotic therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:14051410[CrossRef].[PubMed]
31. Baptista M, Depardieu F, Courvalin P, Arthur M. 1996. Specificity of induction of glycopeptide resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:22912295.[PubMed]
32. Gholizadeh Y, Courvalin P. 2000. Acquired and intrinsic glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Int J Antimicrob Agents 16(Suppl 1):S11S17[CrossRef].[PubMed]
33. Navarro F, Courvalin P. 1994. Analysis of genes encoding D-alanine-D-alanine ligase-related enzymes in Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus flavescens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:17881793[CrossRef].[PubMed]
34. Clark NC, Teixeira LM, Facklam RR, Tenover FC. 1998. Detection and differentiation of vanC-1, vanC-2, and vanC-3 glycopeptide resistance genes in enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 36:22942297.[PubMed]
35. Reynolds PE, Arias CA, Courvalin P. 1999. Gene vanXYC encodes D,D -dipeptidase (VanX) and D,D-carboxypeptidase (VanY) activities in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174. Mol Microbiol 34:341349[CrossRef].[PubMed]
36. Foucault ML, Depardieu F, Courvalin P, Grillot-Courvalin C. 2010. Inducible expression eliminates the fitness cost of vancomycin resistance in enterococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1696416969[CrossRef].[PubMed]
37. Patel R, Piper K, Cockerill FR III, Steckelberg JM, Yousten AA. 2000. The biopesticide Paenibacillus popilliae has a vancomycin resistance gene cluster homologous to the enterococcal VanA vancomycin resistance gene cluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:705709[CrossRef].[PubMed]
38. Rippere K, Patel R, Uhl JR, Piper KE, Steckelberg JM, Kline BC, Cockerill FR III, Yousten AA. 1998. DNA sequence resembling vanA and vanB in the vancomycin-resistant biopesticide Bacillus popilliae. J Infect Dis 178:584588[CrossRef].[PubMed]
39. Guardabassi L, Christensen H, Hasman H, Dalsgaard A. 2004. Members of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus harbor genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:49154918[CrossRef].[PubMed]
40. Biavasco F, Foglia G, Paoletti C, Zandri G, Magi G, Guaglianone E, Sundsfjord A, Pruzzo C, Donelli G, Facinelli B. 2007. VanA-type enterococci from humans, animals, and food: species distribution, population structure, Tn1546 typing and location, and virulence determinants. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:33073319[CrossRef].[PubMed]
41. Freitas AR, Coque TM, Novais C, Hammerum AM, Lester CH, Zervos MJ, Donabedian S, Jensen LB, Francia MV, Baquero F, Peixe L. 2011. Human and swine hosts share vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium CC17 and CC5 and Enterococcus faecalis CC2 clonal clusters harboring Tn1546 on indistinguishable plasmids. J Clin Microbiol 49:925931[CrossRef].[PubMed]
42. Tzavaras I, Siarkou VI, Zdragas A, Kotzamanidis C, Vafeas G, Bourtzi-Hatzopoulou E, Pournaras S, Sofianou D. 2012. Diversity of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers, poultry slaughterers and hospitalized humans in Greece. J Antimicrob Chemother 67:18111818[CrossRef].[PubMed]
43. López M, Tenorio C, Torres C. 2013. Study of vancomycin resistance in faecal enterococci from healthy humans and dogs in Spain a decade after the avoparcin ban in Europe. Zoonoses Public Health 60:160167[CrossRef].[PubMed]
44. Stinear TP, Olden DC, Johnson PD, Davies JK, Grayson ML. 2001. Enterococcal vanB resistance locus in anaerobic bacteria in human faeces. Lancet 357:855856[CrossRef].[PubMed]
45. Domingo MC, Huletsky A, Giroux R, Boissinot K, Picard FJ, Lebel P, Ferraro MJ, Bergeron MG. 2005. High prevalence of glycopeptide resistance genes vanB, vanD, and vanG not associated with enterococci in human fecal flora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:47844786[CrossRef].[PubMed]
46. Stampone L, Del Grosso M, Boccia D, Pantosti A. 2005. Clonal spread of a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strain among bloodstream-infecting isolates in Italy. J Clin Microbiol 43:15751580[CrossRef].[PubMed]
47. Cha JO, Yoo JI, Kim HK, Kim HS, Yoo JS, Lee YS, Jung YH. 2013. Diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates with VanA, VanB, and VanD phenotypes and susceptibility to vancomycin. J Appl Microbiol 115:969976.[PubMed]
48. Woodford N. 2001. Epidemiology of the genetic elements responsible for acquired glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Microb Drug Resist 7:229236[CrossRef].[PubMed]
49. Mak A, Miller MA, Chong G, Monczak Y. 2009. Comparison of PCR and culture for screening of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci: highly disparate results for vanA and vanB. J Clin Microbiol 47:41364137[CrossRef].[PubMed]
50. Leclercq R, Derlot E, Duval J, Courvalin P. 1988. Plasmid-mediated resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin in Enterococcus faecium. N Engl J Med 319:157161[CrossRef].[PubMed]
51. Courvalin P. 2006. Vancomycin resistance in gram-positive cocci. Clin Infect Dis 42(Suppl 1):S25S34[CrossRef].[PubMed]
52. Arthur M, Quintiliani R Jr. 2001. Regulation of VanA- and VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:375381[CrossRef].[PubMed]
53. Evers S, Courvalin P. 1996. Regulation of VanB-type vancomycin resistance gene expression by the VanS(B)-VanR (B) two-component regulatory system in Enterococcus faecalis V583. J Bacteriol 178:13021309.[PubMed]
54. Evers S, Quintiliani R Jr, Courvalin P. 1996. Genetics of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Microb Drug Resist 2:219223[CrossRef].[PubMed]
55. Gold HS, Unal S, Cercenado E, Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Eliopoulos GM, Wennersten CB, Moellering RC Jr. 1993. A gene conferring resistance to vancomycin but not teicoplanin in isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium demonstrates homology with vanB, vanA, and vanC genes of enterococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 37:16041609[CrossRef].[PubMed]
56. Ostrowsky BE, Clark NC, Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Venkataraman L, Samore MH, Tenover FC, Eliopoulos GM, Moellering RC Jr, Gold HS. 1999. A cluster of VanD vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: molecular characterization and clinical epidemiology. J Infect Dis 180:11771185[CrossRef].[PubMed]
57. Fines M, Perichon B, Reynolds P, Sahm DF, Courvalin P. 1999. VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:21612164.[PubMed]
58. McKessar SJ, Berry AM, Bell JM, Turnidge JD, Paton JC. 2000. Genetic characterization of vanG, a novel vancomycin resistance locus of Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:32243228[CrossRef].[PubMed]
59. Boyd DA, Willey BM, Fawcett D, Gillani N, Mulvey MR. 2008. Molecular characterization of Enterococcus faecalis N06-0364 with low-level vancomycin resistance harboring a novel D-Ala-D-Ser gene cluster, vanL. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:26672672[CrossRef].[PubMed]
60. Lebreton F, Depardieu F, Bourdon N, Fines-Guyon M, Berger P, Camiade S, Leclercq R, Courvalin P, Cattoir V. 2011. D-Ala-d-Ser VanN-type transferable vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:46064612[CrossRef].[PubMed]
61. Suppola JP, Kolho E, Salmenlinna S, Tarkka E, Vuopio-Varkila J, Vaara M. 1999. vanA and vanB incorporate into an endemic ampicillin-resistant vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium strain: effect on interpretation of clonality. J Clin Microbiol 37:39343939.[PubMed]
62. Xu X, Lin D, Yan G, Ye X, Wu S, Guo Y, Zhu D, Hu F, Zhang Y, Wang F, Jacoby GA, Wang M. 2010. vanM, a new glycopeptide resistance gene cluster found in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:46434647[CrossRef].[PubMed]
63. Naas T, Fortineau N, Snanoudj R, Spicq C, Durrbach A, Nordmann P. 2005. First nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium expressing a VanD-like phenotype associated with a vanA genotype. J Clin Microbiol 43:36423649[CrossRef].[PubMed]
64. Song JH, Ko KS, Suh JY, Oh WS, Kang CI, Chung DR, Peck KR, Lee NY, Lee WG. 2008. Clinical implications of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) with VanD phenotype and vanA genotype. J Antimicrob Chemother 61:838844[CrossRef].[PubMed]
65. Van Bambeke F, Chauvel M, Reynolds PE, Fraimow HS, Courvalin P. 1999. Vancomycin-dependent Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates and revertant mutants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:4147.[PubMed]
66. Meziane-Cherif D, Saul FA, Moubareck C, Weber P, Haouz A, Courvalin P, Périchon B. 2010. Molecular basis of vancomycin dependence in VanA-type Staphylococcus aureus VRSA-9. J Bacteriol 192:54655471[CrossRef].[PubMed]
67. Bugg TD, Wright GD, Dutka-Malen S, Arthur M, Courvalin P, Walsh CT. 1991. Molecular basis for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147: biosynthesis of a depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor by vancomycin resistance proteins VanH and VanA. Biochemistry 30:1040810415[CrossRef].[PubMed]
68. Sahm DF, Kissinger J, Gilmore MS, Murray PR, Mulder R, Solliday J, Clarke B. 1989. In vitro susceptibility studies of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 33:15881591[CrossRef].[PubMed]
69. Willey BM, Kreiswirth BN, Simor AE, Willaims G, Scriver SR, Phillips A, Low DE. 1992. Detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species. J Clin Microbiol 30:16211624.[PubMed]
70. Manson JM, Keis S, Smith JM, Cook GM. 2003. A clonal lineage of VanA-type Enterococcus faecalis predominates in vancomycin-resistant Enterococci isolated in New Zealand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:204210[CrossRef].[PubMed]
71. Nallapareddy SR, Wenxiang H, Weinstock GM, Murray BE. 2005. Molecular characterization of a widespread, pathogenic, and antibiotic resistance-receptive Enterococcus faecalis lineage and dissemination of its putative pathogenicity island. J Bacteriol 187:57095718[CrossRef].[PubMed]
72. Arthur M, Reynolds PE, Depardieu F, Evers S, Dutka-Malen S, Quintiliani R Jr, Courvalin P. 1996. Mechanisms of glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. J Infect 32:1116[CrossRef].[PubMed]
73. Zhu W, Clark N, Patel JB. 2013. pSK41-like plasmid is necessary for Inc18-like vanA plasmid transfer from Enterococcus faecalis to Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:212219[CrossRef].[PubMed]
74. Zhu W, Clark NC, McDougal LK, Hageman J, McDonald LC, Patel JB. 2008. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with Inc18-like vanA plasmids in Michigan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:452457[CrossRef].[PubMed]
75. Baptista M, Depardieu F, Reynolds P, Courvalin P, Arthur M. 1997. Mutations leading to increased levels of resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in VanB-type enterococci. Mol Microbiol 25:93105[CrossRef].[PubMed]
76. Depardieu F, Podglajen I, Leclercq R, Collatz E, Courvalin P. 2007. Modes and modulations of antibiotic resistance gene expression. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:79114[CrossRef].[PubMed]
77. Arthur M, Molinas C, Courvalin P. 1992. The VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system controls synthesis of depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. J Bacteriol 174:25822591.[PubMed]
78. Arthur M, Molinas C, Dutka-Malen S, Courvalin P. 1991. Structural relationship between the vancomycin resistance protein VanH and 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid dehydrogenases. Gene 103:133134[CrossRef].[PubMed]
79. Arthur M, Depardieu F, Cabanié L, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. 1998. Requirement of the VanY and VanX D,D-peptidases for glycopeptide resistance in enterococci. Mol Microbiol 30:819830[CrossRef].[PubMed]
80. Arthur M, Depardieu F, Molinas C, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. 1995. The vanZ gene of Tn1546 from Enterococcus faecium BM4147 confers resistance to teicoplanin. Gene 154:8792[CrossRef].[PubMed]
81. Arthur M, Depardieu F, Snaith HA, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P. 1994. Contribution of VanY D,D-carboxypeptidase to glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis by hydrolysis of peptidoglycan precursors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:18991903[CrossRef].[PubMed]
82. Rice LB, Carias LL, Hutton-Thomas R, Sifaoui F, Gutmann L, Rudin SD. 2001. Penicillin-binding protein 5 and expression of ampicillin resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:14801486[CrossRef].[PubMed]
83. Loughborough A, Willey B, Kissoon M, Patel S, McGeer A, Low DE, Poutanen S. 2013. Selection of vancomycin resistance from vanA-containing Enterococcus faecium susceptible to vancomycin. Abstract# P-27, AMMI-CACMID. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 24(Suppl B):30B.
84. Coombs GW, Kay ID, Steven RA, Pearman JW, Bertolatti D, Grubb WB. 1999. Should genotypic testing be done on all phenotypically vancomycin- resistant enterococci detected in hospitals? J Clin Microbiol 37:12291230.[PubMed]
85. Sievert DM, Rudrik JT, Patel JB, McDonald LC, Wilkins MJ, Hageman JC. 2008. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, 2002–2006. Clin Infect Dis 46:668674[CrossRef].[PubMed]
86. Weigel LM, Clewell DB, Gill SR, Clark NC, McDougal LK, Flannagan SE, Kolonay JF, Shetty J, Killgore GE, Tenover FC. 2003. Genetic analysis of a high-level vancomycin-resistant isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Science 302:15691571[CrossRef].[PubMed]
87. de Niederhäusern S, Bondi M, Messi P, Iseppi R, Sabia C, Manicardi G, Anacarso I. 2011. Vancomycin-resistance transferability from VanA enterococci to Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Microbiol 62:13631367[CrossRef].[PubMed]
88. Patel R, Uhl JR, Kohner P, Hopkins MK, Steckelberg JM, Kline B, Cockerill FR III. 1998. DNA sequence variation within vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes of clinical Enterococcus isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:202205.[PubMed]
89. Hegstad K, Mikalsen T, Coque TM, Werner G, Sundsfjord A. 2010. Mobile genetic elements and their contribution to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Clin Microbiol Infect 16:541554[CrossRef].[PubMed]
90. Dahl KH, Lundblad EW, Rokenes TP, Olsvik O, Sundsfjord A. 2000. Genetic linkage of the vanB2 gene cluster to Tn5382 in vancomycin-resistant enterococci and characterization of two novel insertion sequences. Microbiology 146:14691479[CrossRef].[PubMed]
91. Willey B, Sachse L, Mustachi B, Edwards LA, Campbell I, Conly J, Dick H, McGeer A, Low DE.1996. Variable MIC expression of an epidemic vanB Enterococcus faecium clone: when susceptible is resistant, abstract# D-31. Abstr 36th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
92. Werner G, Klare I, Fleige C, Geringer U, Witte W, Just HM, Ziegler R. 2012. Vancomycin-resistant vanB-type Enterococcus faecium isolates expressing varying levels of vancomycin resistance and being highly prevalent among neonatal patients in a single ICU. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 1:21[CrossRef].[PubMed]
93. McGeer A, Flemming CA. 2011. Antimicrobial Resistance in Common Hospital Pathogens in Ontario, Rep. 2011. Quality Management Program-Laboratory Services, Toronto, Ontario.
94. McCracken M, Wong A, Mitchell R, Gravel D, Conly J, Embil J, Johnston L, Matlow A, Ormiston D, Simor AE, Smith S, Du T, Hizon R, Mulvey MR, Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. 2013. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia: results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 1999–2009. J Antimicrob Chemother 68:15051509[CrossRef].[PubMed]
95. López M, Cercenado E, Tenorio C, Ruiz-Larrea F, Torres C. 2012. Diversity of clones and genotypes among vancomycin-resistant clinical Enterococcus isolates recovered in a Spanish hospital. Microb Drug Resist 18:484491[CrossRef].[PubMed]
96. Valdezate S, Labayru C, Navarro A, Mantecón MA, Ortega M, Coque TM, García M, Saéz-Nieto JA. 2009. Large clonal outbreak of multidrug-resistant CC17 ST17 Enterococcus faecium containing Tn5382 in a Spanish hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother 63:1720[CrossRef].[PubMed]
97. Werner G, Coque TM, Franz CM, Grohmann E, Hegstad K, Jensen L, van Schaik W, Weaver K. 2013. Antibiotic resistant enterococci-tales of a drug resistance gene trafficker. Int J Med Microbiol 303:360379[CrossRef].[PubMed]
98. Graham M, Ballard SA, Grabsch EA, Johnson PD, Grayson ML. 2008. High rates of fecal carriage of nonenterococcal vanB in both children and adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:11951197[CrossRef].[PubMed]
99. Johnson PD, Ballard SA, Grabsch EA, Stinear TP, Seemann T, Young HL, Grayson ML, Howden BP. 2010. A sustained hospital outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bacteremia due to emergence of vanB E. faecium sequence type 203. J Infect Dis 202:12781286[CrossRef].[PubMed]
100. Bjørkeng E, Rasmussen G, Sundsfjord A, Sjöberg L, Hegstad K, Söderquist B. 2011. Clustering of polyclonal VanB-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a low-endemic area was associated with CC17-genogroup strains harbouring transferable vanB2-Tn5382 and pRUM-like repA containing plasmids with axe-txe plasmid addiction systems. APMIS 119:247258[CrossRef].[PubMed]
101. Freitas AR, Tedim AP, Novais C, Ruiz-Garbajosa P, Werner G, Laverde-Gomez JA, Cantón R, Peixe L, Baquero F, Coque TM. 2010. Global spread of the hyl(Efm) colonization-virulence gene in megaplasmids of the Enterococcus faecium CC17 polyclonal subcluster. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:26602665[CrossRef].[PubMed]
102. Zhang X, Top J, de Been M, Bierschenk D, Rogers M, Leendertse M, Bonten MJ, van der Poll T, Willems RJ, van Schaik W. 2013. Identification of a genetic determinant in clinical Enterococcus faecium strains that contributes to intestinal colonization during antibiotic treatment. J Infect Dis 207:17801786[CrossRef].[PubMed]
103. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2014. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 24th informational supplement, CLSI document M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
104. Domingo MC, Huletsky A, Bernal A, Giroux R, Boudreau DK, Picard FJ, Bergeron MG. 2005. Characterization of a Tn5382-like transposon containing the vanB2 gene cluster in a Clostridium strain isolated from human faeces. J Antimicrob Chemother 55:466474[CrossRef].[PubMed]
105. Domingo MC, Huletsky A, Boissinot M, Hélie MC, Bernal A, Bernard KA, Grayson ML, Picard FJ, Bergeron MG. 2009. Clostridium lavalense sp. nov., a glycopeptide-resistant species isolated from human faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:498503[CrossRef].[PubMed]
106. Marvaud JC, Mory F, Lambert T. 2011. Clostridium clostridioforme and Atopobium minutum clinical isolates with vanB-type resistance in France. J Clin Microbiol 49:34363438[CrossRef].[PubMed]
107. Ballard SA, Grabsch EA, Johnson PD, Grayson ML. 2005. Comparison of three PCR primer sets for identification of vanB gene carriage in feces and correlation with carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: interference by vanB-containing anaerobic bacilli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:7781[CrossRef].[PubMed]
108. Ballard SA, Pertile KK, Lim M, Johnson PD, Grayson ML. 2005. Molecular characterization of vanB elements in naturally occurring gut anaerobes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:16881694[CrossRef].[PubMed]
109. Grabsch EA, Chua K, Xie S, Byrne J, Ballard SA, Ward PB, Grayson ML. 2008. Improved detection of vanB2-containing enterococcus faecium with vancomycin susceptibility by Etest using oxgall supplementation. J Clin Microbiol 46:19611964[CrossRef].[PubMed]
110. Grabsch EA, Ghaly-Derias S, Gao W, Howden BP. 2008. Comparative study of selective chromogenic (chromID VRE) and bile esculin agars for isolation and identification of vanB-containing vancomycin-resistant enterococci from feces and rectal swabs. J Clin Microbiol 46:40344036[CrossRef].[PubMed]
111. Klare I, Fleige C, Geringer U, Witte W, Werner G. 2012. Performance of three chromogenic VRE screening agars, two Etest(®) vancomycin protocols, and different microdilution methods in detecting vanB genotype Enterococcus faecium with varying vancomycin MICs. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 74:171176[CrossRef].[PubMed]
112. Willey B, Gnanasuntharam P, Louie L, Prayitno K, Fung T, Lo P, McGeer A, Poutanen S. 2011. Retrospective evaluation of oxoid brilliance VRE and Bio-Rad VRESelect Chromogenic agars for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) using a genetically diverse isolate collection, abstract P24. Can Assoc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis Annu Conf, Montreal, QC, Canada.
113. Willey BM, Louie L, Gnanasuntharam P, Fung T, Watt C, Gnanasuntharam P, Vermeiren C, Ricci G, Lo P, Wong K, Simor A, McGeer AJ, Mazzulli T, Poutanen SM.2011. Prospective comparison of Oxoid Brilliance VRE and Bio-Rad VRESelect to non-chromogenic agars for detecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from surveillance specimens, abstract P25. Can Assoc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis Annu Conf, Montreal, QC, Canada.
114. Landman D, Quale JM, Oydna E, Willey B, Ditore V, Zaman M, Patel K, Saurina G, Huang W. 1996. Comparison of five selective media for identifying fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 34:751752.[PubMed]
115. Willey B, Prayitno N, Tsang A, Ng M, Lo P, Wong K, Poutanen S.2013. Evaluation of bioMerieux chromID VRE version 43004 agar using a comprehensive collection of well-characterized clinical isolates, abstract P25. Can Assoc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis Annu Conf, Quebec City, QC, Canada.
116. Hegstad K, Giske CG, Haldorsen B, Matuschek E, Schønning K, Leegaard TM, Kahlmeter G, Sundsfjord A, NordicAST VRE Detection Study Group. 2014. Performance of the EUCAST disk diffusion method, the CLSI agar screen method, and the Vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of Enterococci with low- and medium-level VanB-type vancomycin resistance: a multicenter study. J Clin Microbiol 52:15821589[CrossRef].[PubMed]
117. CLSI.2012. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically: Approved Standard Ninth Edition. CLSI Document M07-A9, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
118. Domingo MC, Huletsky A, Boissinot M, Bernard KA, Picard FJ, Bergeron MG. 2008. Ruminococcus gauvreauii sp. nov., a glycopeptide-resistant species isolated from a human faecal specimen. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58:13931397[CrossRef].[PubMed]
119. Al-Mohri HA, Tadros MA, Louie L, Vearncombe M, Simor AE. 2008. Utility of direct, real-time PCR in the management of a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (vanB genotype). Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 27:321322[CrossRef].[PubMed]
120. Clark RB, Lewinski MA, Loeffelholz MJ, Tibbetts RJ,.2009. Cumitech 31A, Verification and validation of procedures in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Coordinating ed, Sharp SE. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
121. Depardieu F, Foucault ML, Bell J, Dubouix A, Guibert M, Lavigne JP, Levast M, Courvalin P. 2009. New combinations of mutations in VanD-Type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus avium strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:19521963[CrossRef].[PubMed]
122. Boyd DA, Conly J, Dedier H, Peters G, Robertson L, Slater E, Mulvey MR. 2000. Molecular characterization of the vanD gene cluster and a novel insertion element in a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolated in Canada. J Clin Microbiol 38:23922394.[PubMed]
123. Dalla Costa LM, Reynolds PE, Souza HA, Souza DC, Palepou MF, Woodford N. 2000. Characterization of a divergent vanD-type resistance element from the first glycopeptide-resistant strain of Enterococcus faecium isolated in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:34443446[CrossRef].[PubMed]
124. Casadewall B, Courvalin P. 1999. Characterization of the vanD glycopeptide resistance gene cluster from Enterococcus faecium BM4339. J Bacteriol 181:36443648.[PubMed]
125. Casadewall B, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P. 2001. Regulation of expression of the vanD glycopeptide resistance gene cluster from Enterococcus faecium BM4339. J Bacteriol 183:34363446[CrossRef].[PubMed]
126. Depardieu F, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P. 2003. VanD-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium 10/96A. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:718[CrossRef].[PubMed]
127. Perichon B, Casadewall B, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. 2000. Glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4416 is a VanD-type strain with an impaired D-Alanine:D-Alanine ligase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:13461348[CrossRef].[PubMed]
128. Perichon B, Reynolds P, Courvalin P. 1997. VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:20162018.[PubMed]
129. Domingo MC, Huletsky A, Giroux R, Picard FJ, Bergeron MG. 2007. vanD and vanG-like gene clusters in a Ruminococcus species isolated from human bowel flora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:41114117[CrossRef].[PubMed]
130. Abadía Patiño L, Courvalin P, Perichon B. 2002. vanE gene cluster of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. J Bacteriol 184:64576464[CrossRef].[PubMed]
131. Boyd DA, Cabral T, Van Caeseele P, Wylie J, Mulvey MR. 2002. Molecular characterization of the vanE gene cluster in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis N00-410 isolated in Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:19771979[CrossRef].[PubMed]
132. Abadía-Patiño L, Christiansen K, Bell J, Courvalin P, Périchon B. 2004. VanE-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates from Australia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:48824885[CrossRef].[PubMed]
133. Van Caeseele P, Giercke S, Wylie J, Boyd D, Mulvey M, Amin S, Ofner-Agostini M. 2001. Identification of the first vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis harbouring vanE in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep 27:101104.[PubMed]
134. Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P. 2003. The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus faecalis revisited. Mol Microbiol 50:931948[CrossRef].[PubMed]
135. Meziane-Cherif D, Saul FA, Haouz A, Courvalin P. 2012. Structural and functional characterization of VanG D-Ala:D-Ser ligase associated with vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis. J Biol Chem 287:3758337592[CrossRef].[PubMed]
136. Boyd DA, Du T, Hizon R, Kaplen B, Murphy T, Tyler S, Brown S, Jamieson F, Weiss K, Mulvey MR. 2006. VanG-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated in Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:22172221[CrossRef].[PubMed]
137. Cosgrove SE. 2006. The relationship between antimicrobial resistance and patient outcomes: mortality, length of hospital stay, and health care costs. Clin Infect Dis 42(Suppl 2):S82S89[CrossRef].[PubMed]
138. Gilmore MS, Lebreton F, van Schaik W. 2013. Genomic transition of enterococci from gut commensals to leading causes of multidrug-resistant hospital infection in the antibiotic era. Curr Opin Microbiol 16:1016[CrossRef].[PubMed]
139. Ziakas PD, Thapa R, Rice LB, Mylonakis E. 2013. Trends and significance of VRE colonization in the ICU: a meta-analysis of published studies. PLoS One 8:e75658[CrossRef].[PubMed]
140. Barry AL, Thornsberry C, Jones RN. 1986. Evaluation of teicoplanin and vancomycin disk susceptibility tests. J Clin Microbiol 23:100103.[PubMed]
141. Biodisk AB. 2007. ETest Application Sheet Enterococci (EAS 009).
142. Willey B, Kreiswirth B, Simor AE, Faur Y, Williams G, Low DE.1992. Evaluation of an agar screen plate for resistance in enterococci, abstract C-261. Abstr 92nd Gen Meet Am Soc Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
143. Swenson JM, Clark NC, Ferraro MJ, Sahm DF, Doern G, Pfaller MA, Reller LB, Weinstein MP, Zabransky RJ, Tenover FC. 1994. Development of a standardized screening method for detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 32:17001704.[PubMed]
144. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 2014. Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 4.0 (accessed June 18, 2014). http://www.eucast.org
145. Poutanen SM, Willey B, Small G, Mazzulli T, Low DE, McGeer A. 2005. VRE alert: pinpoint colony vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium variant associated with nosocomial outbreaks in greater Toronto area. Quality Management Program-Laboratory Services News, No. 88, p 13, March 2005.
146. Willey B, Kreiswirth B, Simor AE, Virdi K, Patel M, Low DE.1992. Detection of vancomycin resistance in enterococci with the Vitek System, abstract 256. Abstr 32nd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
147. Iwen PC, Kelly DM, Linder J, Hinrichs SH. 1996. Revised approach for identification and detection of ampicillin and vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species by using MicroScan panels. J Clin Microbiol 34:17791783.[PubMed]
148. Carroll KC, Borek AP, Burger C, Glanz B, Bhally H, Henciak S, Flayhart DC. 2006. Evaluation of the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of staphylococci and enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 44:20722077[CrossRef].[PubMed]
149. Raponi G, Ghezzi MC, Gherardi G, Lorino G, Dicuonzo G. 2010. Analysis of methods commonly used for glycopeptide and oxazolidinone susceptibility testing in Enterococcus faecium isolates. J Med Microbiol 59:672678[CrossRef].[PubMed]
150. Willey BM, Jones RN, McGeer A, Witte W, French G, Roberts RB, Jenkins SG, Nadler H, Low DE. 1999. Practical approach to the identification of clinically relevant Enterococcus species. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 34:165171[CrossRef].[PubMed]
151. Griffin PM, Price GR, Schooneveldt JM, Schlebusch S, Tilse MH, Urbanski T, Hamilton B, Venter D. 2012. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to identify vancomycin-resistant enterococci and investigate the epidemiology of an outbreak. J Clin Microbiol 50:29182931[CrossRef].