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Chapter 1 : The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses

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The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Viruses are a complex and diverse group of organisms that may have incredibly diverse and ancient origins. Their interaction with humans not only involves disease processes, but also evolutionary pressures that shape viral characteristics. Viral taxonomy, classification, and characterization is not a simple academic exercise but practically improves our ability to diagnose, track, and compare viruses of medical importance and develop a better understanding of pathophysiologic processes. Over the last 5 years, there have been significant changes in the proper names of some commonly identified viruses of medical importance, relationships between these medically relevant viruses, technologic tools, as well as websites and bioinformatics tools. Changes, including what constitutes the definition of a viral species, have already had an impact on how viruses are characterized and classified. The expanded utilization of whole genome sequence analysis and metagenomic approaches has increased the amount of biological information available to the scientific community for virus characterization and categorization. With these newer molecular approaches for virus identification and characterization, as well as enhanced bioinformatics approaches, viral classification is as dynamic and challenging as ever, requiring continuous monitoring, reassessment, and updating to achieve a rational taxonomic framework.

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
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FIGURE 1

Virus taxa infecting humans. Modified from Virus Taxonomy, Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Reprinted from Elsevier Books, , 2002, with permission from Elsevier.)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Taxonomy and characterization of double-stranded DNA viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification I)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Taxonomy and characterization of single-stranded DNA viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification II)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Taxonomy and characterization of double-stranded RNA viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification III)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Taxonomy and characterization of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification IV)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Taxonomy and characterization of negative sense single-stranded RNA viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification V)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Taxonomy and characterization of positive sense single-stranded RNA with a DNA replication intermediate viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification VI)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Taxonomy and characterization of DNA reverse-transcribing viruses of human medical importance (Baltimore classification VII)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 8

Websites for online taxonomy databases

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1
Generic image for table
TABLE 9

Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral hemorrhagic fevers (A90–A99)

Citation: Drews S. 2016. The Taxonomy, Classification, and Characterization of Medically Important Viruses, p 1-25. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch1

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