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Chapter 20 : Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

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Abstract:

Human enteroviruses (EV) are members of the genus of the family and are among the most common human viral infections. Their discovery had implications for all of virology because they indicated, first, that poliovirus (PV) grew in various tissue culture cells that did not correspond to the tissues infected during the human disease and, second, that PV destroyed cells with a specific cytopathic effect (CPE). The infectious virus is relatively resistant to many common laboratory disinfectants, including 70% ethanol, isopropanol, dilute Lysol, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Poliomyelitis should be considered in all cases of pure motor paralysis and is usually associated with a normal or slightly elevated value for protein, normal sugar value, and moderate mononuclear pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Real-time PCR is the primary test used to detect, even with very small amounts of clinical specimens, such as CSF. All important information about a virus could potentially be obtained directly by PCR in conjunction with nucleic acid sequencing if all the molecular correlates of viral phenotypic determinants were understood. The most common molecular typing system is based on reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and nucleotide sequencing of a portion of the genomic region encoding VP1. Another group of pathogenic picornaviruses, the human parechoviruses (genus ), cause a similar array of illnesses as the EV, and they are detected clinically by distinct molecular assays that are analogous to those used for the EV.

Citation: Oberste M, Pallansch M. 2016. Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses, p 277-292. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch20
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