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Chapter 23 : Hepatitis A and E Viruses

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Hepatitis A and E Viruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Viral hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver caused by several viral agents, including hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D (HDV), and E (HEV) viruses. Generally, HAV and HEV are associated with acute, self-limited infection; however, severe and protracted disease can develop. These nonenveloped viruses have independently evolved interesting mechanisms aimed at evading the immune response and guaranteeing survival in the host. These viruses are phylogenetically unrelated but share several similarities. The genomes from both viruses are single-stranded, positive-polarity RNA. The viruses primarily infect the liver, cause acute infection, and are shed in feces. Moreover, the clinical manifestations from HAV and HEV infection are undistinguishable and require specific laboratory tests for each virus. Despite the similarities exhibited by these viruses, differences in the epidemiology of the respective diseases result in distinctive distribution patterns worldwide.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The composition of the HAV genome is depicted. All structural and nonstructural proteins are color coded and their known functions are also described. The nucleotide variability along the entire genome is also presented.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Virological, immunological, and biochemical events during the course of experimental infections of cynomolgus macaques with hepatitis E virus.

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Virologic, immunological, and biochemical events during the course of experimental hepatitis A virus infection (adapted from reference ( ) with permission.)

Citation: Vaughan G, Purdy M. 2016. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 329-339. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch23
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