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Chapter 30 : Human Papillomaviruses

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Human Papillomaviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Papillomaviruses are species specific; in humans they infect a number of sites such as the skin, mouth, anus, conjunctiva, and lower genital tracts of both males and females. The majority of infections, no matter the site, are typically asymptomatic and subclinical. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease. It has been established and accepted that oncogenic or high-risk HPV types are the main cause of cervical cancer in women and can cause other cancers such as vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. Although persistent infection with a high-risk HPV type is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, many women will spontaneously clear the infection and are subsequently not at risk for developing cancer in the future. It is known that greater than 70% of cervical cancer cases are due to HPV types 16 and 18, and testing for HPV along with Pap smear testing is a widely accepted approach for cervical cancer screening. Several organizations have developed guidelines for cervical cancer screening in United States (US) including the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society of Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Recent data suggest that HPV testing can be used as the primary screen for cervical cancer screening as algorithms continue to evolve around clinical patient management. Prevention of cervical cancer and other cancers is now feasible because of the availability of HPV vaccines.

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
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Tables

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TABLE 1

The function of viral proteins

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
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TABLE 2

Diseases associated to human papillomaviruses in immunocompetent people

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Comparison of human papillomavirus vaccines, United States (2015)

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

U.S. FDA-approved assays for high-risk HPV testing

Citation: Novak-Weekley S, Pretorius R. 2016. Human Papillomaviruses, p 413-426. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch30

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