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Chapter 35 : Arboviruses

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Arboviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Arboviruses (thropod-rne viruses) are a biologically defined category of viruses that almost exclusively have RNA genomes. Most of the 100 medically important arboviruses belong to five families: , , , , and . A single genus in the family () and a single DNA virus in the family () are also members of the group. The arboviruses include approximately 40 serological groups based on antigenic cross-reactivity. These viruses are unique in that they generally require cycling between disparate hosts (i.e., vertebrates and hematophagous arthropod vectors). Mosquitoes and ticks are the most common invertebrate vectors, while less common vectors include biting midges and sandflies. Some viruses, such as vertebrate-only flaviviruses (, for one) and insect-only alpha- and flaviviruses (, for one) are not transmitted between disparate hosts.

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
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FIGURE 1

Geographic distribution of arboviral diseases. The choice of tests to be performed should be relevant to the location of the patient at the time of infection, with consideration for location of residence and travel history. Refer to Tables 1 to 3 for clinical syndromes. Virus abbreviations: BF, Barmah Forest; CCHF, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; CE, California encephalitis serogroup (in North America: La Crosse, Snowshoe hare, Jamestown Canyon; in Europe: Inkoo, Tahyna; in Middle East and Africa: Tahyna; in Asia: Snowshoe hare); CHIK, Chikungunya; DEN, Dengue; EEE, Eastern equine encephalitis; JE, Japanese encephalitis; KUN, Kunjin; MAY, Mayaro; MVE, Murray Valley encephalitis; ONN, O'Nyong Nyong; POW, Powassan; RR, Ross River; RVF, Rift Valley fever; SIN, Sindbis; SFN, Sandfly fever Naples; SFS, Sandfly fever Sicilian; SFTS, Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; SLE, St. Louis encephalitis; TBE, Tick-borne encephalitis; TOS, Toscana; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; WEE, Western equine encephalitis; WN, West Nile; YF, Yellow fever; ZIK, Zika. (Modified from a figure kindly provided by Robert Lanciotti, Center for Disease Control, Fort Collins, CO.)

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Viremia and antibody kinetics following arbovirus infection. As a guide for virologic and serologic tests, the solid lines below the graph represent the more common results, and broken lines represent reported ranges. The markers of DENV infection have been well studied and have proven useful for diagnostic methods ( ). Viremia is generally short and spans the period of acute illness (0 to 6 days after onset). IgM appears as viremia declines, peaks approximately 14 days after onset of disease, and may persist up to 3 months. The structural protein, NS1 is expressed during the first 9 days of illness. IgG appears at the end of the first week of illness, slowly increases and may be detectable over the lifetime of the individual. In secondary infections, high levels of IgG are detectable even in the acute phase of illness, whereas IgM levels are significantly lower.

Citation: Kramer L, Kauffman E, Tavakoli N. 2016. Arboviruses, p 493-514. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch35
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