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Chapter 36 : Animal-Borne Viruses

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Abstract:

Zoonotic infections are infections of animals that can be transmitted to humans. There are more than 400 viruses with a zoonotic origin that can cause mild or severe clinical pathology in humans. This chapter will attempt to cover a handful of these viruses that have been especially relevant as human pathogens: arenaviruses, Ebola virus, Nipah virus, and Hantavirus. Arenaviruses consist of a number of species and collectively have a worldwide distribution. They cause mild to severe illness in humans. Filoviruses have a sylvatic epidemiology in Africa and can spill over into humans, where they usually cause severe illness with a high mortality rate. Filoviruses are efficiently spread person-to-person, as highlighted in the 2014 to 2015 urban epidemic in West Africa. Nipah virus has caused a relatively limited number of human cases in Southeast Asia. Nipah virus infection with central nervous system involvement is associated with high mortality. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and cause renal and pulmonary syndromes in humans.

Citation: Berry G, Loeffelholz M, Palacios G. 2016. Animal-Borne Viruses, p 515-526. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch36
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Laboratory diagnosis of select animal-borne viruses

Citation: Berry G, Loeffelholz M, Palacios G. 2016. Animal-Borne Viruses, p 515-526. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch36

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