1887

Chapter 40 : Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch40-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819156/9781555819149.ch40-2.gif

Abstract:

Host genetic variation in components of both specific and innate immune responses affects susceptibility to viral infections. Innate immunity provides the first line of defense, and the development of adaptive immunity is stimulated by innate responses. Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate signaling pathways that result in the production of antiviral interferons and cytokines. Mutations or genetic variants (polymorphisms) have been recognized in several factors of innate immunity. Notably, human populations from distinct geographic areas have different frequencies of immune gene variants. The genetic susceptibility may vary from life-threatening manifestations of specific virus infections to a moderately increased frequency of nonsevere infections. Although the innate immunity is nonspecific by nature, the reactions are stereotypic for viral infections compared with bacterial infections. Even infections caused by specific viruses can be differentiated from each other based on the innate immune response. Host response pattern determination by expression analysis of a predefined set of genes is a novel strategy in the diagnosis of virus infections. Another strategy in differentiating viral and bacterial infections from each other could be the determination of a single marker, such as myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), which is generally induced by viruses but not by bacteria. Host response analysis could also be used in monitoring infections and antiviral treatment, but applications for routine use are not yet available. Certain host gene variants correlate with the prognosis of infection. Currently, for instance, interleukin (IL) 28B genotyping is used to aid in hepatitis C treatment decisions.

Citation: Peltola V, Ilonen J. 2016. Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases, p 567-578. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch40
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) blood levels in children 1 to 24 months of age according to virus detection and the presence of respiratory tract infection symptoms and in asymptomatic adults ( of subjects per group in parentheses). Respiratory viruses were diagnosed by reverse transcription real-time PCR for rhinovirus, enteroviruses, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and by Seeplex RV12 multiplex PCR assay (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) for rhinovirus; RSV types A and B; adenovirus; influenza A and B viruses; parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3; human metapneumovirus; and coronaviruses 229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The boxes show median and interquartile range, and the whiskers show 10th and 90th percentiles. Percentages of measurements above the cut-off level of 175 micrograms per liter (dash line) are shown above the groups. (Reproduced from the with permission of the original publisher [ ].)

Citation: Peltola V, Ilonen J. 2016. Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases, p 567-578. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch40
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Transcriptional profiling of host response in the diagnosis of certain viral and bacterial infections. Patients had various types of acute bacterial infections, respiratory viral infections, or dengue. Expression levels of functionally related sets of genes are displayed on a grid, with the coordinates corresponding to 1 of 28 module IDs (e.g., Module M3.1 is at the intersection of the third row and first column). Mapping transcriptional changes at the module level identifies disease-specific biosignatures in patients with infectious diseases. Expression levels were compared between patients and appropriately matched healthy controls on a module-by-module basis. The spots represent the percentage of significantly overexpressed (red) or underexpressed (blue) transcripts within a module (i.e., set of coordinately expressed genes). Blank spots indicate that there are no differences in the genes included in that module between patients and healthy controls. Each pathogen induces a disease-specific biosignature that is easily identifiable. (Reproduced from with permission of the original publisher [ ].

Citation: Peltola V, Ilonen J. 2016. Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases, p 567-578. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch40
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819156.ch40
1. Picard C, Fischer A. 2014. Contribution of high-throughput DNA sequencing to the study of primary immunodeficiencies. Eur J Immunol 44:28542861.[PubMed]
2. Picard C, Casanova JL, Abel L. 2006. Mendelian traits that confer predisposition or resistance to specific infections in humans. Curr Opin Immunol 18:383390.[PubMed]
3. Doherty PC, Zinkernagel RM. 1975. A biological role for the major histocompatibility antigens. Lancet 305:14061409.[PubMed]
4. Blackwell JM, Jamieson SE, Burgner D. 2009. HLA and infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 22:370385.[PubMed]
5. Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Kwiatkowski D, Anstey NM, Twumasi P, Rowe PA, Bennett S, Brewster D, McMichael AJ, Greenwood BM. 1991. Common west African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria. Nature 352:595600.[PubMed]
6. Bossuyt X, Moens L, Van Hoeyveld E, Jeurissen A, Bogaert G, Sauer K, Proesmans M, Raes M, De Boeck K. 2006. Coexistence of (partial) immune defects and risk of recurrent respiratory infections. Clin Chem 53:124130.[PubMed]
7. Brown KE, Hibbs JR, Gallinella G, Anderson SM, Lehman ED, McCarthy P, Young NS. 1994. Resistance to parvovirus B19 infection due to lack of virus receptor (erythrocyte P antigen). N Engl J Med 330:11921196.[PubMed]
8. Thorven M, Grahn A, Hedlund KO, Johansson H, Wahlfrid C, Larson G, Svensson L. 2005. A homozygous nonsense mutation (428G—>A) in the human secretor (FUT2) gene provides resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII) infections. J Virol 79:1535115355.[PubMed]
9. Finlay BB, McFadden G. 2006. Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and viral pathogens. Cell 124:767782.[PubMed]
10. Collins SE, Mossman KL. 2014. Danger, diversity and priming in innate antiviral immunity. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 25:525531.[PubMed]
11. Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O. 2006. Pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Cell 124:783801.[PubMed]
12. Goubau D, Schlee M, Deddouche S, Pruijssers AJ, Zillinger T, Goldeck M, Schuberth C, Van der Veen AG, Fujimura T, Rehwinkel J, Iskarpatyoti JA, Barchet W, Ludwig J, Dermody TS, Hartmann G, Reis e Sousa C. 2014. Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5′-diphosphates. Nature 514:372375.[PubMed]
13. Wu J, Chen ZJ. 2014. Innate immune sensing and signaling of cytosolic nucleic acids. Annu Rev Immunol 32:461488.[PubMed]
14. Miyairi I, DeVincenzo JP. 2008. Human genetic factors and respiratory syncytial virus disease severity. Clin Microbiol Rev 21:686703.[PubMed]
15. Pang IK, Iwasaki A. 2011. Inflammasomes as mediators of immunity against influenza virus. Trends Immunol 32:3441.[PubMed]
16. Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Matsui K, Uematsu S, Jung A, Kawai T, Ishii KJ, Yamaguchi O, Otsu K, Tsujimura T, Koh CS, Reis e Sousa C, Matsuura Y, Fujita T, Akira S. 2006. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature 441:101105.[PubMed]
17. Tang ED, Wang CY. 2009. MAVS self-association mediates antiviral innate immune signaling. J Virol 83:34203428.[PubMed]
18. Pandey S, Kawai T, Akira S. 2015. Microbial sensing by Toll-like receptors and intracellular nucleic acid sensors. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 7:a016246.[PubMed]
19. Bieback K, Lien E, Klagge IM, Avota E, Schneider-Schaulies J, Duprex WP, Wagner H, Kirschning CJ, Ter Meulen V, Schneider-Schaulies S. 2002. Hemagglutinin protein of wild-type measles virus activates toll-like receptor 2 signaling. J Virol 76:87298736.[PubMed]
20. Kurt-Jones EA, Popova L, Kwinn L, Haynes LM, Jones LP, Tripp RA, Walsh EE, Freeman MW, Golenbock DT, Anderson LJ, Finberg RW. 2000. Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus. Nat Immunol 1:398401.[PubMed]
21. Diebold SS, Kaisho T, Hemmi H, Akira S, Reis e Sousa C. 2004. Innate antiviral responses by means of TLR7-mediated recognition of single-stranded RNA. Science 303:15291531.[PubMed]
22. Pirhonen J, Sareneva T, Kurimoto M, Julkunen I, Matikainen S. 1999. Virus infection activates IL-1 beta and IL-18 production in human macrophages by a caspase-1-dependent pathway. J Immunol 162:73227329.[PubMed]
23. Weinzierl AO, Rudolf D, Maurer D, Wernet D, Rammensee HG, Stevanović S, Klingel K. 2008. Identification of HLA-A*01- and HLA-A*02-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes shared among group B enteroviruses. J Gen Virol 89:20902097.[PubMed]
24. Bengs S, Marttila J, Susi P, Ilonen J. 2015. Elicitation of T-cell responses by structural and non-structural proteins of coxsackievirus B4. J Gen Virol 96:322330.[PubMed]
25. Kreijtz JH, Fouchier RA, Rimmelzwaan GF. 2011. Immune responses to influenza virus infection. Virus Res 162:1930.[PubMed]
26. Karttunen A, Pöyry T, Vaarala O, Ilonen J, Hovi T, Roivainen M, Hyypiä T. 2003. Variation in enterovirus receptor genes. J Med Virol 70:99108.[PubMed]
27. Dean M, Carrington M, Winkler C, Huttley GA, Smith MW, Allikmets R, Goedert JJ, Buchbinder SP, Vittinghoff E, Gomperts E, Donfield S, Vlahov D, Kaslow R, Saah A, Rinaldo C, Detels R, O'Brien SJMulticenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study, San Francisco City Cohort, ALIVE Study. 1996. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Science 273:18561862.[PubMed]
28. Liu R, Paxton WA, Choe S, Ceradini D, Martin SR, Horuk R, MacDonald ME, Stuhlmann H, Koup RA, Landau NR. 1996. Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection. Cell 86:367377.[PubMed]
29. Samson M, Libert F, Doranz BJ, Rucker J, Liesnard C, Farber CM, Saragosti S, Lapoumeroulie C, Cognaux J, Forceille C, Muyldermans G, Verhofstede C, Burtonboy G, Georges M, Imai T, Rana S, Yi Y, Smyth RJ, Collman RG, Doms RW, Vassart G, Parmentier M. 1996. Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene. Nature 382:722725.[PubMed]
30. Hernandez PA, Gorlin RJ, Lukens JN, Taniuchi S, Bohinjec J, Francois F, Klotman ME, Diaz GA. 2003. Mutations in the chemokine receptor gene CXCR4 are associated with WHIM syndrome, a combined immunodeficiency disease. Nat Genet 34:7074.[PubMed]
31. Nejentsev S, Walker N, Riches D, Egholm M, Todd JA. 2009. Rare variants of IFIH1, a gene implicated in antiviral responses, protect against type 1 diabetes. Science 324:387389.[PubMed]
32. Alsina L, Israelsson E, Altman MC, Dang KK, Ghandil P, Israel L, von Bernuth H, Baldwin N, Qin H, Jin Z, Banchereau R, Anguiano E, Ionan A, Abel L, Puel A, Picard C, Pascual V, Casanova JL, Chaussabel D. 2014. A narrow repertoire of transcriptional modules responsive to pyogenic bacteria is impaired in patients carrying loss-of-function mutations in MYD88 or IRAK4. Nat Immunol 15:11341142.[PubMed]
33. von Bernuth H, Picard C, Puel A, Casanova JL. 2012. Experimental and natural infections in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice and humans. Eur J Immunol 42:31263135.[PubMed]
34. Picard C, Casanova JL, Puel A. 2011. Infectious diseases in patients with IRAK-4, MyD88, NEMO, or IκBα deficiency. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:490497.[PubMed]
35. Casrouge A, Zhang SY, Eidenschenk C, Jouanguy E, Puel A, Yang K, Alcais A, Picard C, Mahfoufi N, Nicolas N, Lorenzo L, Plancoulaine S, Sénéchal B, Geissmann F, Tabeta K, Hoebe K, Du X, Miller RL, Héron B, Mignot C, de Villemeur TB, Lebon P, Dulac O, Rozenberg F, Beutler B, Tardieu M, Abel L, Casanova JL. 2006. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in human UNC-93B deficiency. Science 314:308312.[PubMed]
36. Pérez de Diego R, Sancho-Shimizu V, Lorenzo L, Puel A, Plancoulaine S, Picard C, Herman M, Cardon A, Durandy A, Bustamante J, Vallabhapurapu S, Bravo J, Warnatz K, Chaix Y, Cascarrigny F, Lebon P, Rozenberg F, Karin M, Tardieu M, Al-Muhsen S, Jouanguy E, Zhang SY, Abel L, Casanova JL. 2010. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis. Immunity 33:400411.[PubMed]
37. Sancho-Shimizu V, Pérez de Diego R, Lorenzo L, Halwani R, Alangari A, Israelsson E, Fabrega S, Cardon A, Maluenda J, Tatematsu M, Mahvelati F, Herman M, Ciancanelli M, Guo Y, AlSum Z, Alkhamis N, Al-Makadma AS, Ghadiri A, Boucherit S, Plancoulaine S, Picard C, Rozenberg F, Tardieu M, Lebon P, Jouanguy E, Rezaei N, Seya T, Matsumoto M, Chaussabel D, Puel A, Zhang SY, Abel L, Al-Muhsen S, Casanova JL. 2011. Herpes simplex encephalitis in children with autosomal recessive and dominant TRIF deficiency. J Clin Invest 121:48894902.[PubMed]
38. Zhang SY, Jouanguy E, Ugolini S, Smahi A, Elain G, Romero P, Segal D, Sancho-Shimizu V, Lorenzo L, Puel A, Picard C, Chapgier A, Plancoulaine S, Titeux M, Cognet C, von Bernuth H, Ku CL, Casrouge A, Zhang XX, Barreiro L, Leonard J, Hamilton C, Lebon P, Héron B, Vallée L, Quintana-Murci L, Hovnanian A, Rozenberg F, Vivier E, Geissmann F, Tardieu M, Abel L, Casanova JL. 2007. TLR3 deficiency in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. Science 317:15221527.[PubMed]
39. Gorbea C, Makar KA, Pauschinger M, Pratt G, Bersola JL, Varela J, David RM, Banks L, Huang CH, Li H, Schultheiss HP, Towbin JA, Vallejo JG, Bowles NE. 2010. A role for Toll-like receptor 3 variants in host susceptibility to enteroviral myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Biol Chem 285:2320823223.[PubMed]
40. Sironi M, Biasin M, Cagliani R, Forni D, De Luca M, Saulle I, Lo Caputo S, Mazzotta F, Macías J, Pineda JA, Caruz A, Clerici M. 2012. A common polymorphism in TLR3 confers natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. J Immunol 188:818823.[PubMed]
41. Bochud PY, Hersberger M, Taffé P, Bochud M, Stein CM, Rodrigues SD, Calandra T, Francioli P, Telenti A, Speck RF, Aderem ASwiss HIV Cohort Study. 2007. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 9 influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection. AIDS 21:441446.[PubMed]
42. Ricci E, Malacrida S, Zanchetta M, Mosconi I, Montagna M, Giaquinto C, De Rossi A. 2010. Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphisms influence mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Transl Med 8:15.[PubMed]
43. Tal G, Mandelberg A, Dalal I, Cesar K, Somekh E, Tal A, Oron A, Itskovich S, Ballin A, Houri S, Beigelman A, Lider O, Rechavi G, Amariglio N. 2004. Association between common Toll-like receptor 4 mutations and severe respiratory syncytial virus disease. J Infect Dis 189:20572063.[PubMed]
44. Paulus SC, Hirschfeld AF, Victor RE, Brunstein J, Thomas E, Turvey SE. 2007. Common human Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms—role in susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus infection and functional immunological relevance. Clin Immunol 123:252257.[PubMed]
45. Löfgren J, Marttila R, Renko M, Rämet M, Hallman M. 2010. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly polymorphism in respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. Pediatr Pulmonol 45:687692.[PubMed]
46. Vuononvirta J, Toivonen L, Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela K, Barkoff AM, Lindholm L, Mertsola J, Peltola V, He Q. 2011. Nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization and gene polymorphisms of mannose-binding lectin and toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in infants. PLoS One 6:e26198.[PubMed]
47. Unger BL, Faris AN, Ganesan S, Comstock AT, Hershenson MB, Sajjan US. 2012. Rhinovirus attenuates non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae-stimulated IL-8 responses via TLR2-dependent degradation of IRAK-1. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002969.[PubMed]
48. Ghildyal R, Hartley C, Varrasso A, Meanger J, Voelker DR, Anders EM, Mills J. 1999. Surfactant protein A binds to the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus and neutralizes virion infectivity. J Infect Dis 180:20092013.[PubMed]
49. Hillaire ML, Haagsman HP, Osterhaus AD, Rimmelzwaan GF, van Eijk M. 2013. Pulmonary surfactant protein D in first-line innate defence against influenza A virus infections. J Innate Immun 5:197208.[PubMed]
50. El Saleeby CM, Li R, Somes GW, Dahmer MK, Quasney MW, DeVincenzo JP. 2010. Surfactant protein A2 polymorphisms and disease severity in a respiratory syncytial virus-infected population. J Pediatr 156:409414.e4.[PubMed]
51. Lahti M, Löfgren J, Marttila R, Renko M, Klaavuniemi T, Haataja R, Rämet M, Hallman M. 2002. Surfactant protein D gene polymorphism associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. Pediatr Res 51:696699.[PubMed]
52. Löfgren J, Rämet M, Renko M, Marttila R, Hallman M. 2002. Association between surfactant protein A gene locus and severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants. J Infect Dis 185:283289.[PubMed]
53. Thomas PG, Dash P, Aldridge JR Jr, Ellebedy AH, Reynolds C, Funk AJ, Martin WJ, Lamkanfi M, Webby RJ, Boyd KL, Doherty PC, Kanneganti TD. 2009. The intracellular sensor NLRP3 mediates key innate and healing responses to influenza A virus via the regulation of caspase-1. Immunity 30:566575.[PubMed]
54. Hugot JP, Chamaillard M, Zouali H, Lesage S, Cézard JP, Belaiche J, Almer S, Tysk C, O'Morain CA, Gassull M, Binder V, Finkel Y, Cortot A, Modigliani R, Laurent-Puig P, Gower-Rousseau C, Macry J, Colombel JF, Sahbatou M, Thomas G. 2001. Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411:599603.[PubMed]
55. Levy R, Gérard L, Kuemmerle-Deschner J, Lachmann HJ, Koné-Paut I, Cantarini L, Woo P, Naselli A, Bader-Meunier B, Insalaco A, Al-Mayouf SM, Ozen S, Hofer M, Frenkel J, Modesto C, Nikishina I, Schwarz T, Martino S, Meini A, Quartier P, Martini A, Ruperto N, Neven B, Gattorno Mfor PRINTO and Eurofever. 2015. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome: a series of 136 patients from the Eurofever Registry. Ann Rheum Dis 74:20432049.[PubMed]
56. Garred P, Larsen F, Seyfarth J, Fujita R, Madsen HO. 2006. Mannose-binding lectin and its genetic variants. Genes Immun 7:8594.[PubMed]
57. Ip WK, Chan KH, Law HK, Tso GH, Kong EK, Wong WH, To YF, Yung RW, Chow EY, Au KL, Chan EY, Lim W, Jensenius JC, Turner MW, Peiris JS, Lau YL. 2005. Mannose-binding lectin in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. J Infect Dis 191:16971704.[PubMed]
58. Karppinen S, Vuononvirta J, He Q, Waris M, Peltola V. 2013. Effects of rhinovirus infection on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization in infants with wild or variant types of mannose-binding lectin and Toll-like receptors 3 and 4. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2:240247.[PubMed]
59. Ferdinands JM, Denison AM, Dowling NF, Jost HA, Gwinn ML, Liu L, Zaki SR, Shay DK. 2011. A pilot study of host genetic variants associated with influenza-associated deaths among children and young adults. Emerg Infect Dis 17:22942302.[PubMed]
60. Verma A, White M, Vathipadiekal V, Tripathi S, Mbianda J, Ieong M, Qi L, Taubenberger JK, Takahashi K, Jensenius JC, Thiel S, Hartshorn KL. 2012. Human H-ficolin inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses. J Immunol 189:24782487.[PubMed]
61. Seppänen M, Lokki ML, Timonen T, Lappalainen M, Jarva H, Järvinen A, Sarna S, Valtonen V, Meri S. 2001. Complement C4 deficiency and HLA homozygosity in patients with frequent intraoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections. Clin Infect Dis 33:16041607.[PubMed]
62. Seppänen M, Lokki ML, Lappalainen M, Hiltunen-Back E, Rovio AT, Kares S, Hurme M, Aittoniemi J. 2009. Mannose-binding lectin 2 gene polymorphism in recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Hum Immunol 70:218221.[PubMed]
63. Filipovich AH, Zhang K, Snow AL, Marsh RA. 2010. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndromes: brothers or distant cousins? Blood 116:33983408.[PubMed]
64. Tang M, Lautenberger JA, Gao X, Sezgin E, Hendrickson SL, Troyer JL, David VA, Guan L, McIntosh CE, Guo X, Zheng Y, Liao J, Deng H, Malasky M, Kessing B, Winkler CA, Carrington M, Dé The G, Zeng Y, O'Brien SJ. 2012. The principal genetic determinants for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China involve the HLA class I antigen recognition groove. PLoS Genet 8:e1003103.[PubMed]
65. Halliday E, Winkelstein J, Webster AD. 2003. Enteroviral infections in primary immunodeficiency (PID): a survey of morbidity and mortality. J Infect 46:18.[PubMed]
66. Kainulainen L, Vuorinen T, Rantakokko-Jalava K, Österback R, Ruuskanen O. 2010. Recurrent and persistent respiratory tract viral infections in patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:120126.[PubMed]
67. Janssen R, Bont L, Siezen CL, Hodemaekers HM, Ermers MJ, Doornbos G, van 't Slot R, Wijmenga C, Goeman JJ, Kimpen JL, van Houwelingen HC, Kimman TG, Hoebee B. 2007. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is predominantly associated with innate immune genes. J Infect Dis 196:826834.[PubMed]
68. Randolph AG, Yip WK, Falkenstein-Hagander K, Weiss ST, Janssen R, Keisling S, Bont L. 2014. Vitamin D-binding protein haplotype is associated with hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis. Clin Exp Allergy 44:231237.[PubMed]
69. Zúñiga J, Buendía-Roldán I, Zhao Y, Jiménez L, Torres D, Romo J, Ramírez G, Cruz A, Vargas-Alarcon G, Sheu CC, Chen F, Su L, Tager AM, Pardo A, Selman M, Christiani DC. 2012. Genetic variants associated with severe pneumonia in A/H1N1 influenza infection. Eur Respir J 39:604610.[PubMed]
70. Horby P, Nguyen NY, Dunstan SJ, Baillie JK. 2012. The role of host genetics in susceptibility to influenza: a systematic review. PLoS One 7:e33180.[PubMed]
71. Mills TC, Rautanen A, Elliott KS, Parks T, Naranbhai V, Ieven MM, Butler CC, Little P, Verheij T, Garrard CS, Hinds C, Goossens H, Chapman S, Hill AV. 2014. IFITM3 and susceptibility to respiratory viral infections in the community. J Infect Dis 209:10281031.[PubMed]
72. Zhang YH, Zhao Y, Li N, Peng YC, Giannoulatou E, Jin RH, Yan HP, Wu H, Liu JH, Liu N, Wang DY, Shu YL, Ho LP, Kellam P, McMichael A, Dong T. 2013. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 genetic variant rs12252-C is associated with severe influenza in Chinese individuals. Nat Commun 4:16.[PubMed]
73. Haller O, Kochs G. 2011. Human MxA protein: an interferon-induced dynamin-like GTPase with broad antiviral activity. J Interferon Cytokine Res 31:7987.[PubMed]
74. Toivonen L, Schuez-Havupalo L, Rulli M, Ilonen J, Pelkonen J, Melén K, Julkunen I, Peltola V, Waris M. 2015. Blood MxA protein as a marker for respiratory virus infections in young children. J Clin Virol 62:813.[PubMed]
75. Halminen M, Ilonen J, Julkunen I, Ruuskanen O, Simell O, Mäkelä MJ. 1997. Expression of MxA protein in blood lymphocytes discriminates between viral and bacterial infections in febrile children. Pediatr Res 41:647650.[PubMed]
76. Nakabayashi M, Adachi Y, Itazawa T, Okabe Y, Kanegane H, Kawamura M, Tomita A, Miyawaki T. 2006. MxA-based recognition of viral illness in febrile children by a whole blood assay. Pediatr Res 60:770774.[PubMed]
77. Ramilo O, Allman W, Chung W, Mejias A, Ardura M, Glaser C, Wittkowski KM, Piqueras B, Banchereau J, Palucka AK, Chaussabel D. 2007. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections. Blood 109:20662077.[PubMed]
78. Zaas AK, Burke T, Chen M, McClain M, Nicholson B, Veldman T, Tsalik EL, Fowler V, Rivers EP, Otero R, Kingsmore SF, Voora D, Lucas J, Hero AO, Carin L, Woods CW, Ginsburg GS. 2013. A host-based RT-PCR gene expression signature to identify acute respiratory viral infection. Sci Transl Med 5:203ra126.[PubMed]
79. Zaas AK, Chen M, Varkey J, Veldman T, Hero AO III, Lucas J, Huang Y, Turner R, Gilbert A, Lambkin-Williams R, Øien NC, Nicholson B, Kingsmore S, Carin L, Woods CW, Ginsburg GS. 2009. Gene expression signatures diagnose influenza and other symptomatic respiratory viral infections in humans. Cell Host Microbe 6:207217.[PubMed]
80. Huang Y, Zaas AK, Rao A, Dobigeon N, Woolf PJ, Veldman T, Øien NC, McClain MT, Varkey JB, Nicholson B, Carin L, Kingsmore S, Woods CW, Ginsburg GS, Hero AO III. 2011. Temporal dynamics of host molecular responses differentiate symptomatic and asymptomatic influenza a infection. PLoS Genet 7:e1002234.[PubMed]
81. Hu X, Yu J, Crosby SD, Storch GA. 2013. Gene expression profiles in febrile children with defined viral and bacterial infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:1279212797.[PubMed]
82. Devignot S, Sapet C, Duong V, Bergon A, Rihet P, Ong S, Lorn PT, Chroeung N, Ngeav S, Tolou HJ, Buchy P, Couissinier-Paris P. 2010. Genome-wide expression profiling deciphers host responses altered during dengue shock syndrome and reveals the role of innate immunity in severe dengue. PLoS One 5:e11671.[PubMed]
83. Herberg JA, Kaforou M, Gormley S, Sumner ER, Patel S, Jones KD, Paulus S, Fink C, Martinon-Torres F, Montana G, Wright VJ, Levin M. 2013. Transcriptomic profiling in childhood H1N1/09 influenza reveals reduced expression of protein synthesis genes. J Infect Dis 208:16641668.[PubMed]
84. Parnell GP, McLean AS, Booth DR, Armstrong NJ, Nalos M, Huang SJ, Manak J, Tang W, Tam OY, Chan S, Tang BM. 2012. A distinct influenza infection signature in the blood transcriptome of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care 16:112.[PubMed]
85. Zaas AK, Garner BH, Tsalik EL, Burke T, Woods CW, Ginsburg GS. 2014. The current epidemiology and clinical decisions surrounding acute respiratory infections. Trends Mol Med 20:579588.[PubMed]
86. Zhu Z, Qi Y, Ge A, Zhu Y, Xu K, Ji H, Shi Z, Cui L, Zhou M. 2014. Comprehensive characterization of serum microRNA profile in response to the emerging avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans. Viruses 6:15251539.[PubMed]
87. Hong X, Yu RB, Sun NX, Wang B, Xu YC, Wu GL. 2005. Human leukocyte antigen class II DQB1*0301, DRB1*1101 alleles and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 11:73027307.[PubMed]
88. Yan ZH, Fan Y, Wang XH, Mao Q, Deng GH, Wang YM. 2012. Relationship between HLA-DR gene polymorphisms and outcomes of hepatitis B viral infections: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 18:31193128.[PubMed]
89. Thompson AJ, Muir AJ, Sulkowski MS, Ge D, Fellay J, Shianna KV, Urban T, Afdhal NH, Jacobson IM, Esteban R, Poordad F, Lawitz EJ, McCone J, Shiffman ML, Galler GW, Lee WM, Reindollar R, King JW, Kwo PY, Ghalib RH, Freilich B, Nyberg LM, Zeuzem S, Poynard T, Vock DM, Pieper KS, Patel K, Tillmann HL, Noviello S, Koury K, Pedicone LD, Brass CA, Albrecht JK, Goldstein DB, McHutchison JG. 2010. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology 139:1209.e18.[PubMed]
90. Dill MT, Duong FH, Vogt JE, Bibert S, Bochud PY, Terracciano L, Papassotiropoulos A, Roth V, Heim MH. 2011. Interferon-induced gene expression is a stronger predictor of treatment response than IL28B genotype in patients with hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 140:10211031.e10.[PubMed]
91. Duggal P, Thio CL, Wojcik GL, Goedert JJ, Mangia A, Latanich R, Kim AY, Lauer GM, Chung RT, Peters MG, Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Cox AL, Khakoo SI, Alric L, Cramp ME, Donfield SM, Edlin BR, Tobler LH, Busch MP, Alexander G, Rosen HR, Gao X, Abdel-Hamid M, Apps R, Carrington M, Thomas DL. 2013. Genome-wide association study of spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection: data from multiple cohorts. Ann Intern Med 158:235245.[PubMed]
92. Prokunina-Olsson L, Muchmore B, Tang W, Pfeiffer RM, Park H, Dickensheets H, Hergott D, Porter-Gill P, Mumy A, Kohaar I, Chen S, Brand N, Tarway M, Liu L, Sheikh F, Astemborski J, Bonkovsky HL, Edlin BR, Howell CD, Morgan TR, Thomas DL, Rehermann B, Donnelly RP, O'Brien TR. 2013. A variant upstream of IFNL3 (IL28B) creating a new interferon gene IFNL4 is associated with impaired clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nat Genet 45:164171.[PubMed]
93. Patin E, Kutalik Z, Guergnon J, Bibert S, Nalpas B, Jouanguy E, Munteanu M, Bousquet L, Argiro L, Halfon P, Boland A, Müllhaupt B, Semela D, Dufour JF, Heim MH, Moradpour D, Cerny A, Malinverni R, Hirsch H, Martinetti G, Suppiah V, Stewart G, Booth DR, George J, Casanova JL, Bréchot C, Rice CM, Talal AH, Jacobson IM, Bourlière M, Theodorou I, Poynard T, Negro F, Pol S, Bochud PY, Abel LSwiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study Group, International Hepatitis C Genetics Consortium, French ANRS HC EP 26 Genoscan Study Group. 2012. Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with progression of liver fibrosis from HCV infection. Gastroenterology 143:1244–1252.e12.[PubMed]
94. Chatzidaki V, Kouroumalis E, Galanakis E. 2011. Hepatitis B virus acquisition and pathogenesis in childhood: host genetic determinants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 52:38.[PubMed]
95. Wu JF, Chen CH, Ni YH, Lin YT, Chen HL, Hsu HY, Chang MH. 2012. Toll-like receptor and hepatitis B virus clearance in chronic infected patients: a long-term prospective cohort study in Taiwan. J Infect Dis 206:662668.[PubMed]
96. Mackelprang RD, Bigham AW, Celum C, de Bruyn G, Beima-Sofie K, John-Stewart G, Ronald A, Mugo NR, Buckingham KJ, Bamshad MJ, Mullins JI, McElrath MJ, Lingappa JR. 2014. Toll-like receptor polymorphism associations with HIV-1 outcomes among sub-Saharan Africans. J Infect Dis 209:16231627.[PubMed]
97. Oh DY, Taube S, Hamouda O, Kücherer C, Poggensee G, Jessen H, Eckert JK, Neumann K, Storek A, Pouliot M, Borgeat P, Oh N, Schreier E, Pruss A, Hattermann K, Schumann RR. 2008. A functional toll-like receptor 8 variant is associated with HIV disease restriction. J Infect Dis 198:701709.[PubMed]
98. Rotger M, Dang KK, Fellay J, Heinzen EL, Feng S, Descombes P, Shianna KV, Ge D, Günthard HF, Goldstein DB, Telenti ASwiss HIV Cohort Study, Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology. 2010. Genome-wide mRNA expression correlates of viral control in CD4+ T-cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. PLoS Pathog 6:e1000781.[PubMed]
99. Wilson J, Rowlands K, Rockett K, Moore C, Lockhart E, Sharland M, Kwiatkowski D, Hull J. 2005. Genetic variation at the IL10 gene locus is associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis 191:17051709.[PubMed]
100. Helminen M, Nuolivirta K, Virta M, Halkosalo A, Korppi M, Vesikari T, Hurme M. 2008. IL-10 gene polymorphism at -1082 A/G is associated with severe rhinovirus bronchiolitis in infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 43:391395.[PubMed]
101. Nuolivirta K, He Q, Vuononvirta J, Koponen P, Helminen M, Korppi M. 2012. Toll-like receptor 3 L412F polymorphisms in infants with bronchiolitis and postbronchiolitis wheezing. Pediatr Infect Dis J 31:920923.[PubMed]
102. Revai K, Patel JA, Grady JJ, Nair S, Matalon R, Chonmaitree T. 2009. Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk for upper respiratory tract infection and acute otitis media. Clin Infect Dis 49:257261.[PubMed]
103. Herrera-Ramos E, López-Rodríguez M, Ruíz-Hernández JJ, Horcajada JP, Borderías L, Lerma E, Blanquer J, Pérez-González MC, García-Laorden MI, Florido Y, Mas-Bosch V, Montero M, Ferrer JM, Sorlí L, Vilaplana C, Rajas O, Briones M, Aspa J, López-Granados E, Solé-Violán J, de Castro FR, Rodríguez-Gallego C. 2014. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection. Crit Care 18:112.[PubMed]
104. Oshansky CM, Gartland AJ, Wong SS, Jeevan T, Wang D, Roddam PL, Caniza MA, Hertz T, Devincenzo JP, Webby RJ, Thomas PG. 2014. Mucosal immune responses predict clinical outcomes during influenza infection independently of age and viral load. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 189:449462.[PubMed]
105. Wark PA, Bucchieri F, Johnston SL, Gibson PG, Hamilton L, Mimica J, Zummo G, Holgate ST, Attia J, Thakkinstian A, Davies DE. 2007. IFN-gamma-induced protein 10 is a novel biomarker of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 120:586593.[PubMed]
106. Contoli M, Message SD, Laza-Stanca V, Edwards MR, Wark PA, Bartlett NW, Kebadze T, Mallia P, Stanciu LA, Parker HL, Slater L, Lewis-Antes A, Kon OM, Holgate ST, Davies DE, Kotenko SV, Papi A, Johnston SL. 2006. Role of deficient type III interferon-lambda production in asthma exacerbations. Nat Med 12:10231026.[PubMed]
107. Wark PA, Johnston SL, Bucchieri F, Powell R, Puddicombe S, Laza-Stanca V, Holgate ST, Davies DE. 2005. Asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells have a deficient innate immune response to infection with rhinovirus. J Exp Med 201:937947.[PubMed]
108. Sykes A, Macintyre J, Edwards MR, Del Rosario A, Haas J, Gielen V, Kon OM, McHale M, Johnston SL. 2014. Rhinovirus-induced interferon production is not deficient in well controlled asthma. Thorax 69:240246.[PubMed]
109. Ghany MG, Nelson DR, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LBAmerican Association for Study of Liver Diseases. 2011. An update on treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology 54:14331444.[PubMed]
110. Mejias A, Suarez NM, Ramilo O. 2014. Detecting specific infections in children through host responses: a paradigm shift. Curr Opin Infect Dis 27:228235.[PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Examples of human genetic variants leading to susceptibility to or protection against viral infections

Citation: Peltola V, Ilonen J. 2016. Human Susceptibility and Response to Viral Diseases, p 567-578. In Loeffelholz M, Hodinka R, Young S, Pinsky B (ed), Clinical Virology Manual, Fifth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555819156.ch40

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error