1887

Chapter 13 : Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819170/9781555819163_Chap13-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555819170/9781555819163_Chap13-2.gif

Abstract:

Leprosy (or Hansen’s disease) is a chronic infectious disease caused by a slowly multiplying obligate pathogen, , an acid-fast, rod-shaped bacillus belonging to a single species with limited genetic variability ( ). has four types and 16 subtypes based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and variations (InDels) in insertions and deletions ( ). Although not highly infectious, it is transmitted via droplets from the nose and mouth during close and frequent contacts with untreated cases. The incubation period can be very long (in some cases up to 20 years) before clinical signs and symptoms become apparent ( ). Leprosy can affect all age groups and both sexes. To this day, we cannot grow the bacillus in the laboratory. The bacillus is almost specific to humans but does affect some armadillos () from the southeastern United States (Texas and Louisiana) ( ) and a specific type of monkey. In the laboratory, rats, mice, and hamsters can be infected. The diagnosis of the disease in archaeological specimens can be problematic because the characteristic bony changes can occur in a number of other diseases. Thus, paleomicrobiology can help to confirm a clinical incidence and, along with genotyping, can trace the spread of the disease and even human migration patterns responsible for its spread ( ).

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Stages of bone infiltration.

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Facial appearance of a victim.

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Rhinomaxillary syndrome.

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Nasal changes in leprosy.

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Characteristic pencil shape of the tubular (metatarsal) bones of the foot.

Citation: Spigelman M, Rubini M. 2017. Paleomicrobiology of Leprosy, p 131-142. In Drancourt M, Raoult D (ed), Paleomicrobiology of Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0009-2015
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555819170.chap13
1. Monot M,, Honoré N,, Garnier T,, Araoz R,, Coppée J-Y,, Lacroix C,, Sow S,, Spencer JS,, Truman RW,, Williams DL,, Gelber R,, Virmond M,, Flageul B,, Cho SN,, Ji B,, Paniz-Mondolfi A,, Convit J,, Young S,, Fine PE,, Rasolofo V,, Brennan PJ,, Cole ST . 2005. On the origin of leprosy. Science 308 : 10401042.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Monot M,, Honoré N,, Garnier T,, Zidane N,, Sherafi D,, Paniz-Mondolfi A,, Matsuoka M,, Taylor GM,, Donoghue HD,, Bouwman A,, Mays S,, Watson C,, Lockwood D,, Khamispour A,, Dowlati Y,, Jianping S,, Rea TH,, Vera-Cabrera L,, Stefani MM,, Banu S,, Macdonald M,, Sapkota BR,, Spencer JS,, Thomas J,, Harshman K,, Singh P,, Busso P,, Gattiker A,, Rougemont J,, Brennan PJ,, Cole ST . 2009. Comparative genomic and phylogeographic analysis of Mycobacterium leprae . Nat Genet 41 : 12821288.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Robbins SL,, Cotran RS . 2002. Pathologic Basis of Disease. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. [PubMed]
4. Jopling WH . 2004. Handbook of Leprosy, 5th ed. Sheridan Medical Books, New York, NY. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Maiden MCJ . 2009. Putting leprosy on the map. Nat Genet 41(12): 1264.
6. Rubini M,, Zaio P,, Roberts AC . 2014. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy. New skeletal evidence. HOMO - J Comp Hum Biol 65 : 1332.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. WHO . 2016. Leprosy fact sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs101/en.
8. Thappa DM,, Sharma VK,, Kaur S,, Suri S . 1992. Radiological changes in hands and feet in disabled leprosy patients: a clinical-radiological correlation. Lepr India 64 : 5866.
9. Kulkarni VN,, Mehta JM . 1983. Tarsal disintegration (T.D.) in leprosy. Lepr India 55 : 338370.[PubMed]
10. Ortner DJ . 2003. Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
11. Roberts CA,, Manchester K . 2005. The archaeology of disease, 3rd ed. Sutton Publishing, Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK.
12. Geluk A,, Ottenhoff THM . 2006. HLA and leprosy in the pre- and postgenomic eras. Hum Immunol 67 : 439445.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Kumarasinghe SPW,, Kumarasinghe MP,, Amarasinghe UTP . 2005. “Tap sign” in tubercoloid and borderline tubercoloid leprosy. Int J Lepr 72 : 291295.[PubMed]
14. Ridley DS,, Jopling WH . 1966. Classification of leprosy according to immunity, a five-group system. Int J Lepr 34 : 255273.[PubMed]
15. Kampirapap K . 2008. Assessment of subclinical leprosy infection through the measurement of PGL-1 antibody levels in residents of a former leprosy colony in Thailand. Lepr Rev 79 : 315319.[PubMed]
16. Manchester K . 1984. Tuberculosis and leprosy in antiquity: an interpretation. Med Hist 28 : 162173.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Rubini M,, Zaio P . 2009. Lepromatous leprosy in an early mediaeval cemetery in Central Italy (Morrione, Campochiaro, Molise, 6th–7th century AD). J Archeol Sci 36 : 27712779.[CrossRef]
18. Robbins G,, Mushrif Tipathy V,, Misra VN,, Mohanty RK,, Shinde VS,, Gray KM,, Schug MD . 2009. Ancient skeletal evidence for leprosy in India (2000 B.C.). Plos One 4 : 18. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005669. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Kerr-Pontes LR,, Dorta Montenegro AC,, Lima Barreto M,, Werneck GL,, Feldmeier H . 2004. Inequality and leprosy in Northeast Brazil: an ecological study. Int J Ecol 33 : 262269.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
20. Anonymous . 2002. Bones raise leprosy doubts. BBC News, November 5. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/2406001.stm.
21. Mariotti V,, Dutour O,, Belcastro MG,, Facchini F,, Brasili P . 2005. Probable early presence of leprosy in Europe in a Celtic skeleton of the 4th-3rd century BC (Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna, Italy). Int J Osteoarchaeol 15 : 311325.[CrossRef]
22. Andersen JG . 1969. Studies on the Medieval Diagnosis of Leprosy in Denmark. An Ostearchaeological, Historical and Clinical Study. Costers Bogtrykkeri, Copenhagen, Denmark.
23. Arcini C . 1999. Health and disease in early Lund: osteopathological studies of 3,305 individuals buried in the first cemetery area of Lund 990-1536. Archaeologica Lundensia VIII. Department of Community Health Sciences, Lund.
24. Boldsen JL . 2001. Epidemiological approach to the paleopathological diagnosis of leprosy. Am J Phys Anthropol 115 : 380387.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
25. Boldsen JL . 2005. Leprosy and mortality in the medieval Danish village of Tirup. Am J Phys Anthropol 126 : 159168.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
26. Bennike P,, Lewis ME,, Schultkowski H,, Valentin F . 2005. Comparison of child morbidity in two contrasting Medieval cemeteries from Denmark. Am J Phys Anthropol 128 : 734746.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
27. Haas CJ,, Zink A,, Szeimies U,, Nerlich G, . 2002. Molecular evidence of Mycobacterium leprae in historical bone samples from South Germany, p 287292. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy. Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports International Series (Book 1054). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, UK.
28. Roberts CA, . 2000. Infectious disease in biocultural perspective: past, present and future work in Britain, p 145162. In Cox M,, Mays S (ed), Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science. Greenwich Medical Media, London, UK. [PubMed]
29. Schultz M,, Roberts C, . 2002. Diagnosis of leprosy in skeletons from an English late Medieval hospital using histological analysis, p 89105. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy. Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports International Series (Book 1054). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, UK.
30. Murphy E,, Manchester K, . 2002. Evidence for leprosy in Medieval Ireland, p 193199. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy. Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports International Series (Book 1054). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, UK. [PubMed]
31. Belcastro MG,, Mariotti V,, Facchini F,, Dutour O . 2005. Leprosy in a skeleton from the 7th century Necropolis of Vicenne-Campochiaro (Molise, Italy). Int J Osteoarchaeol 15 : 431448.[CrossRef]
32. Rubini M . 2008. Disfiguring diseases and society in the fourth - fifth centuries A.D.: the case of Palombara Sabina (Rome, Central Italy). In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting Archaeological Institute of America, Chicago, IL.
33. Rubini M,, Dell’Anno V,, Giuliani R,, Favia P,, Zaio P . 2012. The first probable case of leprosy in Southeast Italy (13th -14th centuries AD, Montecorvino, Puglia). J Anthropol. doi:10.1155/2012/262790. [CrossRef]
34. Rubini M,, Cerroni V,, Zaio P . 2015. The Origin and Spread of Mycobacterium leprae in Human Evolution. Konrad Lorenz Institute, Vienna, Austria.
35. Strouhal E,, Ladislava H,, Likovsky J,, Vargova L,, Danes J, . 2002. Traces of leprosy from the Czech Kingdom, p 223232. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy. Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports International Series (Book 1054). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford, UK.
36. Palfi G . 1991. The first osteoarchaeological evidence of leprosy in Hungary. Int J Osteoarchaeol 1 : 99102.[CrossRef]
37. Blau S,, Yagodin V . 2005. Osteoarchaeological evidence for leprosy from Western Central Asia. Am J Phys Anthropol 126 : 150158.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
38. Andersen JG,, Manchester K . 1992. The rhinomaxillary syndrome in leprosy: a clinical, radiological and paleopathological study. Int J Osteoarchaeol 2 : 121129.[CrossRef]
39. Bullock WE, . 1990. Mycobacterium leprae (leprosy), p 19061914. In Mandell GL,, Douglas RG,, Bennett JE (ed), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Churchill Livingston, New York, NY.
40. Job CK,, Sushil M,, Chandi SM . 2001. Differential Diagnosis of Leprosy: a Guide Book for Histopathologists. Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation, Tokyo, Japan.
41. Mullis K,, Faloona F . 1987. Specific synthesis of DNA in vitro via a polymerase catalysed chain reaction. Methods Enzymol 155 : 335350.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
42. Spigelman M,, Lemma E . 1992. The use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in ancient skeletons. Int J Osteoarchaeol 3 : 137143.[CrossRef]
43. Salo W,, Aufterheide A,, Buikstra J,, Holcomb T . 1994. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in a pre-Columbian Peruvian mummy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 : 20912094.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
44. Eisenach KD,, Cave MD,, Bates JH,, Crawford JT . 1990. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a repetitive DNA sequence specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . J Infect Dis 161 : 977981.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
45. Gill M . 1992. A History of Palestine 634-1099. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
46. Rafi A,, Spigelman M,, Stanford J,, Lemma E,, Donoghue H,, Zias J . 1994. Mycobacterium leprae from ancient bones detected by PCR. Lancet 343 : 13601361.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
47. Rafi A,, Spigelman M,, Stanford J,, Lemma E,, Donoghue H,, Zias J . 1994. DNA of Mycobacterium leprae detected by PCR in ancient bone. Int J Osteoarchaeol 4 : 287290.[CrossRef]
48. Hartskeerl RA,, De Wit M,, Yand Klaster PR . 1989. Polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycobacterium leprae . J Gen Microbiol 135 : 23552364.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
49. Donoghue HD,, Gladykowska-Rzeczycka J,, Marcsik A,, Holton J,, Spigelman M, . 2002. Mycobacterium leprae in archaeological samples, p 271285. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy: Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports Series. Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.
50. Spigelman M,, Donoghue HD, . 2002. The study of ancient DNA answers a palaeopathological question, p 287296. In Roberts CA,, Lewis ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy: Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Reports Series. Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.
51. Donoghue HD,, Holton J,, Spigelman M . 2001. PCR primers that can detect low levels of Mycobacterium leprae DNA. J Med Microbiol 50 : 177182.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
52. Hershkovitz I,, Spiers M,, Katznelson A,, Arensburg B . 1992. Unusual pathological condition in the lower extremities of a skeleton from ancient Israel. Am J Phys Anthropol 88 : 2326.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
53. Hershkovitz I,, Spiers M,, Arensburg B . 1993. Leprosy or Madura foot? The ambiguous nature of infectious disease in paleopathology: reply to Dr Manchester. Am J Phys Anthropol 91 : 251253.[CrossRef]
54. Manchester K . 1993. Unusual pathological condition in the lower extremities of a skeleton from ancient Israel. Am J Phys Anthropol 91 : 249250.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
55. Spigelman M,, Donoghue HD . 2001. Brief communication: unusual pathological condition in the lower extremities of a skeleton from ancient Israel. Am J Phys Anthropol 114 : 9293.[CrossRef]
56. Cooper A,, Poinar HN . 2000. Ancient DNA: do it right or not at all. Science 289 : 1139. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
57. Lee OY-C,, Bull ID,, Molnár E,, Marcsik A,, Pálfi G,, Donoghue HD,, Besra GS,, Minnikin DE, . 2012. Integrated strategies for the use of lipid biomarkers in the diagnosis of ancient mycobacterial disease, p 6369. In Mitchell PD,, Buckberry J (ed), Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge 2010. British Arachaeological Reports International Series (Book 2380). Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.
58. Minnikin DE,, Besra GS,, Lee O-YC,, Spigelman M,, Donoghue HD, . 2011. The interplay of NA and lipid biomarkers in the detection of tuberculosis and leprosy in mummies and other skeletal remains, p 109114. In Gill-Frerking H,, Rosendahl W,, Zink A,, Piombini-Mascali D . Yearbook of Mummy Studies, vol. 1. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, Münich, Germany.
59. Watson CL,, Popescu E,, Boldsen J,, Slaus M,, Lockwood DNJ . 2010. Correction: single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. leprae DNA. PLoS One 5(1). doi:10.1371/annotation/1b400b6e-8883-436c-b3c4-00e1ec2db101.
60. Economou C,, Kjellström A,, Lidén K,, Panagopoulos I . 2013. Ancient DNA reveals an Asian type of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Scandinavia. J Archaeol Sci 40 : 465470.[CrossRef]
61. Shuenemann VJ,, Singh P,, Mendum TA,, Krause-Kyora B,, Jäger G,, Bos KI,, Herbig A,, Economou C,, Benjak A,, Busso P . 2013. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae . Science 341 : 179183.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
62. Taylor GM,, Tucker K,, Butler R,, Pike AWG,, Lewis J,, Roffey PM,, Lee OY-C,, Wu HHT,, Minnikin DE,, Besra GS,, Singh P,, Cole ST,, Stewart GR . 2013. Detection and strain typing of ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a medieval leprosy hospital. PLoS One 8 : e62406. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062406. [PubMed]
63. Donoghue HD . 2013. Insights into ancient leprosy and tuberculosis using metagenomics. Trends Microbiol 21 : 448450.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
64. Matheson CD,, Vernon KK,, Lahti A,, Fratpietro R,, Spigelman M,, Gibson S,, Greenblatt CL,, Donoghue HD . 2010. Correction: Molecular exploration of the First-Century Tomb of the Shroud in Akeldama, Jerusalem. PLoS One 5(4). doi:10.1371/annotation/32ada7b9-3772-4c08-9135-b5c0933f0b5e. Zissu, Boaz [added]. [CrossRef]
65. Molto JE, . 2002. p 179192. In Roberts CA,, Lewes ME,, Manchester K (ed), The Past and Present of Leprosy. Archaeological, Historical, Palaeopathological and Clinical Approaches. British Archaeological Research International Series (Book 1054). Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.
66. Rubini M,, Erdal YS,, Spigelman M,, Zaio P,, Donoghue HD . 2014. Paleopathological and molecular study on two cases of ancient childhood leprosy from the Roman and Byzantine empires. Int J Osteoarchaeol 24 : 570582.[CrossRef]
67. Rawcliffe C . 2006. Leprosy in Medieval England. Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK. [PubMed]
68. Lowe J,, McNulty F . 1953. Tuberculosis and leprosy: immunological studies in healthy persons. Br Med J ii : 579584.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
69. Chaussinand R . 1948. Tubercolose et lèpre, maladies antagoniques. Eviction de la lèpre parl la tubercolose. Int J Lepr 16 : 431438.
70. Merle CSC,, Cunha SS,, Rodrigues LC . 2010. BCG vaccination and leprosy protection: review of current evidence and status of BCG in leprosy control. Expert Rev Vaccines 9 : 209222.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
71. Shinnick TM,, Sweetser D,, Thole J . 1987. The etiologic agents of leprosy and tuberculosis share an immunoreactive protein antigen with the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Infect Immun 55 : 19321935.[PubMed]
72. Prasad R,, Verma SK,, Singh R . 2010. Concomittant pulmonary tuberculosis and borderline leprosy with type-II lepra reaction in single patient. Lung India 27 : 1923.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
73. Ravindra K,, Sugareddy M,, Ramachander T . 2010. Coexistence of borderline tuberculoid Hansen’s disease with tuberculosis verrucosa cutis in a child – a rare case. Lepr India 82 : 9193.[PubMed]
74. Donoghue HD,, Marcsik A,, Matheson C,, Vernon K,, Nuorala E,, Molto JE,, Greenblatt CL,, Spigelman M . 2005. Co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae in human archaeological samples: a possible explanation for the historical decline of leprosy. Proc R Socy of Lond B Biol Sci 272 : 389394.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
75. Kumar B,, Kaur S,, Kataria S,, Roy SN . 1982. Concomitant occurrence of leprosy and tuberculosis – a clinical, bacteriological and radiological evaluation. Lepr India 54 : 7176.[PubMed]
76. Gartner EMS,, Glatthaar E,, Imkamp FMJH,, Kok SH . 1980. Association of tuberculosis and leprosy in South Africa. Lepr Rev 51 : 510.[PubMed]
77. Lietman T,, Porco T,, Blower S . 1997. Leprosy and tuberculosis: the epidemiological consequences of cross-immunity. Am J Public Health 87 : 19231927.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
78. Hohmann H,, Voss-Böhme A . 2013. The epidemiological consequences of leprosy-tuberculosis co-infection. Math Biosci 241 : 225237.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
79. Manchester K,, Roberts C . 1989. The palaeopathology of leprosy in Britain: a review. World Archaeol 21 : 265272.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
80. Donoghue G,, Taylor M,, Marcsik A,, Molnár E,, Pálfi G,, Pap I,, Teschler-Nicola M,, Pinhasi R,, Erdal YS,, Velemínsky P,, Likovsky J,, Belcastro MG,, Mariotti V,, Riga A,, Rubini M,, Zaio P,, Besra GS,, Lee OYC,, Wu HHT,, Minnikin DE,, Bull ID,, O’Grady J,, Spigelman M . 2015. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval eastern and Central Europe. Infect Genet Evol 31 : 250256.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error